Effect of acidic phospholipids on the activity of lysosomal phospholipases and on their inhibition induced by aminoglycoside antibiotics--II. Conformational analysis.
ABSTRACT In a companion paper (Mingeot-Leclercq et al. Biochem Pharmacol 40: 489-497, 1990), we showed that the inhibitory potency of gentamicin on the activity of lysosomal phospholipases, measured towards phosphatidylcholine included in negatively-charged liposomes, is markedly influenced by the nature of the acidic phospholipid used (phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidic acid), whereas the binding of the drug to the three types of liposomes is similar. This result challenged previous conclusions pointing to a key role exerted by drug binding to phospholipid membranes and presumably charge neutralization, for phospholipases inhibition (Carlier et al. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 23: 440-449, 1983; Mingeot-Leclercq et al., Biochem Pharmacol 37:591-599, 1988). Conformational analysis of mixed monolayers of gentamicin and each of the three acid phospholipids shows that gentamicin systematically adopts an orientation largely parallel to the hydrophobic-hydrophilic interface, but that (i) the energies of interaction are largely different (phosphatidylinositol greater than phosphatidylserine greater than phosphatidic acid), and (ii) the apparent accessibility of the bound drug to water varies in an inverse relation with the energies of interaction. Amikacin, a semisynthetic derivative of kanamycin A with a lower inhibitory potential towards phospholipases than gentamicin in the three types of liposomes used, also showed similar differences in energies of interaction and accessibility to water, but constantly exhibited an orientation perpendicular to the hydrophobic-hydrophilic interface. We conclude that impairment of lysosomal phospholipase activities towards phosphatidylcholine included in negatively-charged membranes by aminoglycoside antibiotics is indeed dependent upon drug binding to the bilayer, but is also modulated by (i) the nature of the acidic phospholipid, which influences the energy of interaction and the accessibility of the drug with respect to the hydrophilic phase, and (ii) the orientation of the drug, which it itself related to its chemical structure. Inasmuch as phospholipases inhibition is related to aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity, these findings may help in better defining the molecular determinants and mechanisms responsible for this adverse effect.