Blood pressure, fitness, and fatness in 5- and 6-year-old children.
ABSTRACT Cross-sectional relations among blood pressure (BP), aerobic fitness, body fatness, and fat patterning were studied in 216 primarily Hispanic inner-city 5- and 6-year-olds. Fitness was measured with a submaximal treadmill test, and fatness was measured with five skin folds. Diastolic BP was inversely related to fitness in the boys and girls, and positively related to fatness for the boys. Systolic BP was positively related to fatness for the boys and girls. Using multiple regression and including parental BPs, fatness explained significant proportions of the variance in systolic BP for both the boys and girls and in diastolic BP for the boys. There were tendencies for central skin folds to explain more of the variation in BP than peripheral skin folds only for the boys. Fitness and fatness were inversely related for the boys and girls. Thus, at 5 and 6 years of age children exhibit some of the same risk factors for cardiovascular disease seen in adults.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the association between sleeping time (SLT), time spent using screen (ST) and weight status with Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) among pre-school children. Subjects and methods: The sample comprised 628 pre-school children (50% female), aged 3-6 years-old. SLT and ST were reported by parents. BMI values were categorized according to IOTF. SBP cut points were based on SBP percentiles for age, sex and height. ST was dichotomized according to the following criteria: ≤1 hour vs >1 hour and SLT: ≤10.5 hours vs >10.5 hours. Participants were then categorized into one of four category profiles: Low ST/High SLT; High ST/Low SLT; Low ST/Low SLT and High ST/High SLT. Results: Children assigned to the High ST/Low SLT group were 2-times more likely to have high SBP values compared to those who were assigned to the Low ST/High SLT group (OR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.1-5.1). Furthermore, those who were assigned as overweight and obese were more likely to be classified as having elevated BP (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.1-3.2 for overweight and OR = 3.1; 95% CI = 1.6-5.8 for obese, respectively). Conclusion: The data showed that high ST exposure time and low SLT are associated with enhanced blood pressure in children at pre-school.Annals of Human Biology 05/2014; 41(6):1-5. DOI:10.3109/03014460.2014.909884 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Arterial hypertension (AH) manifested during childhood and teenage years has been considered, for a long period of time, as being a rare disease and almost exclusively a secondary one. Within the last 10-15 years, as the diagnosis techniques improved and the research regarding juvenile AH extended, the diagnosis criteria have been reconsidered and as a consequence, the disease has become more frequent until reaching the age of 16, compared to the past periods of time.
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ABSTRACT: Objective. To assess the effectiveness of a two-year school-based intervention, consisting of integrated and replicable physical activity and nutritional education on weight, fat percentage, cardiovascular risk factors, and blood pressure. Design and setting. Six elementary schools in Reykjavik were randomly assigned to be either intervention (n = 3) or control (n = 3) schools. Seven-year-old children in the second grade in these schools were invited to participate (n = 321); 268 (83%) underwent some or all of the measurements. These 286 children were followed up for two years. Intervention. Children in intervention schools participated in an integrated and replicable physical activity programme, increasing to approximately 60 minutes of physical activity during school in the second year of intervention. Furthermore, they received special information about nutrition, and parents, teachers, and school food service staff were all involved in the intervention. Subjects. 321seven-year-old schoolchildren. Main outcome measures. Blood pressure, obesity, percentage of body fat, lipid profile, fasting insulin. Results. Children in the intervention group had a 2.3 mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and a 2.9 mmHg increase in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) over the two-year intervention period, while children in the control group increased SBP by 6.7 mmHg and DPB by 8.4 mmHg. These changes were not statistically significant. Furthermore there were no significant changes in percentage body fat, lipid profile, or fasting insulin between the intervention and control schools. Conclusion. A two-year school-based intervention with increased physical activity and healthy diet did not have a significant effect on common cardiovascular risk factors.Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care 11/2014; DOI:10.3109/02813432.2014.982363 · 1.61 Impact Factor