Effects of teat cistern mural biopsy and full-thickness stab and longitudinal incisional healing were evaluated experimentally on clinically normal teats in 12 lactating dairy cattle. Each teat on each cow was assigned by Latin-square design to 1 of 4 surgical interventions: (I) teatoscopy only; (II) teatoscopy, stab incision, and mural biopsy; (III) longitudinal incision and mural biopsy; and (IV) longitudinal incision, mural biopsy, and tube implantation. Teatoscopy was done with a 4-mm OD arthroscope introduced through the teat canal and attached to a television camera. Teatoscopy was quicker to perform and provided a more detailed videotaped examination of the teat and gland cistern, compared with gross inspection through a longitudinal incision. In intervention-II cows, the Ferris-Smith biopsy instrument jaws introduced through a longitudinal 1-cm midteat stab incision were easy to visualize and manipulate accurately. Stab incisions closed with only 1 or 2 skin sutures healed without complications in all 12 teats. On palpation, stab incisions were significantly (P less than 0.01) less thick than longitudinal incisions at 8 weeks and were microscopically indistinguishable from the normal tissue. However, in 24 teatoscopically examined teats, 9 (38%) had microscopic evidence of teat canal injury and 12 (50%) of the quarters developed mastitis. This was attributed to trauma resulting from introduction of the arthroscope through the teat canal. Intervention III yielded satisfactory results with the least complications. All 12 longitudinal incisions healed by primary intention, and all teats remained patent. Mastitis developed in 4 (33%) quarters. Intervention IV caused considerable complications associated with the tube implant and no improvement in biopsy site healing, compared with interventions II and III. Eleven longitudinal incisions healed by primary intention. One incision dehisced, 2 (17%) tube implants dislodged, 2 (17%) became obstructed proximally, and irritations of the mucous membrane developed in 2 teats proximally and in 6 teats distally. Mastitis developed in 6 (50%) quarters. Longitudinal incisions healed with moderate submucosal fibrosis. All sutured incisions had multifocal microgranulomata in which suture material was in various stages of degradation. At 8 weeks, localized teat wall thickening could be detected at incisional and biopsy sites, but did not obstruct milk flow. Excessive granulation tissue was at the biopsy sites (72 total) at 2 weeks, and at this time, the sites were partially covered by metaplastic squamous epithelium. However, by 8 weeks, 71 (98%) of the areas were replaced by fibrous tissue with minimal protrusion into the teat cistern.
"Postinvasive complications, however, were multiple, such as blood clots in milk, fistula formation, and mastitis . Therefore, an endoscopic approach through the ductus papillaris may be a more suitable alternative for the collection of fresh biopsies of the lower parts (i.e., lactiferous cistern) of the mammary gland (Tulleners and Hamir, 1990; Persson et al., 1992; Shakespeare, 1998). Using an endoscopic technique, follow up of macroscopic lesions occurring during experimentally induced mastitis could be of interest. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of an endoscopic technique to investigate the teat and udder cisterns of the bovine mammary gland, and to biopsy tissues within the cisterns. An anesthetic protocol for application in standing animals was designed, using a combination of general and local anesthesia. Individual quarter milk production (QMP), quarter somatic cell count (SCC), and occurrence of new intramammary infection were assessed after application of the technique, and possible applications for biopsies collected were investigated. Bovine teat and gland cistern lining could be visualized and small biopsy samples could be collected. The collected biopsy samples were successfully used in histological-histopathological examination and PCR analysis. To study the impact of endoscopy on QMP, milk SCC, and bacteriology, endoscopic examination of 12 low SCC (<200,000 cells/ mL) quarters was performed in 8 different first- and second-lactation cows. Immediately following endoscopy, 8 quarters received antibiotic treatment, whereas 4 quarters remained untreated. During a 15-d follow-up, no new intramammary infection could be observed in the endoscopically treated quarters. For QMP, no significant interaction between time and treatment could be observed throughout the 15-d follow-up period. Quarter SCC did not differ among treatments (control, endoscopy with antibiotics, and endoscopy without antibiotics). In conclusion, the endoscopic technique is suitable for examination and tissue biopsy collection of the bovine mammary gland cisterns without major interference with QMP and quarter SCC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Injuries to the teat in dairy cows can result in partial or complete obstruction of the teat lumen. Different treatment techniques have been used to restore normal function in injured teats, one of which is autogenous mucosal grafts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the vestibular mucosa as a replacement for teat mucosa in severe teat injuries. Sixteen teats of four healthy, mature, non-gravid Jersey cows were randomly divided into two equal groups. Under high epidural analgesia and after surgical preparation a 1 x 1.5 cm piece of teat mucosa was removed. In group 1, the defect was replaced by a 2 x 2.5 cm vestibular mucosa, whereas in group 2, the defect was left open. In both groups, a sterile disposable teat cannula was inserted into the teat cistern following surgery. To evaluate luminal diameter, double contrast radiography with constant air pressure was performed every 25 days till day 125, after which the animals were slaughtered and teats removed for histopathological study (H&E staining). On the basis of radiographic examination, luminal narrowing in group 2 was significantly more severe than in group 1. Histopathologically, the entire mucosal grafts of group 1 were taken and a good adhesion could be seen between the graft and the host epithelium. In group 2, severe submucosal fibrosis and mucosal papilloid hyperplasia resulted in severe narrowing of the teat cistern. According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that using vestibular mucosal grafts with temporary insertion of teat cannula can be considered as a method of treating teat mucosal injuries.
Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A 09/2002; 49(7):379-84. DOI:10.1046/j.1439-0442.2002.00467.x · 0.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Teat endoscopy (theloscopy) is a useful technique for diagnosis and therapy of covered teat injuries. Minimal invasive theloscopic surgery may help to restore milk flow, milk yield, and SCC of the affected quarter. Infection with pathogens may not change significantly, however. Cows treated as described may yield as much milk as their herdmates at a slightly increased udder SCC and stay as long in the herd as their herdmates. Theloscopy also may be used for diagnosis and therapy of various other teat disorders.
Veterinary Clinics of North America Food Animal Practice 04/2005; 21(1):205-25. DOI:10.1016/j.cvfa.2004.11.003 · 2.00 Impact Factor
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