Fluoro-Gold: a new fluorescent retrograde axonal tracer with numerous unique properties.
ABSTRACT A new fluorescent dye, Fluoro-Gold, has been demonstrated to undergo retrograde axonal transport. Its properties include intense fluorescence, extensive filling of dendrites, high resistance to fading, no uptake by intact undamaged fibers of passage, no diffusion from labeled cells, consistent and pure commercial source, wide latitude of survival times and compatibility with all other tested neuro-histochemical techniques.
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ABSTRACT: Retrograde labeling has become the new "gold standard" technique to evaluate the recovery of injured peripheral nerves. In this study, lentiviral vectors with rabies virus glycoprotein envelop (RABV-G-LV) and RFP genes are injected into gastrocnemius muscle to determine the location of RFP in sciatic nerves. We then examine RFP expression in the L4-S1 spinal cord and sensory dorsal root ganglia and in the rat sciatic nerve, isolated Schwann cells, viral dose to expression relationship and the use of RABV-G-LV as a retrograde tracer for regeneration in the injured rat sciatic nerve. VSV-G-LV was used as control for viral envelope specificity. Results showed that RFP were positive in the myelin sheath and lumbar spinal motorneurons of the RABV-G-LV group. RFP gene could be detected both in myelinated Schwann cells and lumbar spinal motor neurons in the RABV-G-LV group. Schwann cells isolated from the RABV-G-LV injected postnatal Sprague Dawley rats were also RFP-gene positive. All the results obtained in the VSV-G-LV group were negative. Distribution of RFP was unaltered and the level of RFP expression increasing with time progressing. RABV-G-LV could assess the amount of functional regenerating nerve fibers two months post-operation in the four models. This method offers an easy-operated and consistent standardized approach for retrograde labeling regenerating peripheral nerves, which may be a significant supplement for the previous RABV-G-LV-related retrograde labeling study.Cell and Tissue Research 12/2013; · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neuronal and vascular brain components are interrelated morphologically, physiologically and developmentally. Due to this close interrelationship, it is often difficult to understand the cause and effect relationship between neuronal vs. vascular dysfunction and pathology. This review will discuss four of the more promising recent developments for detecting vascular pathology, and will compare them with the labeling pattern seen with markers of glial and neuronal pathology; following exposure to well characterized neurotoxicants. To detect the vascular dysfunction in the brain, we recently developed a Fluoro-Turquoise gelatin conjugate (FT-gel), a fluorescent probe that helps to delineate between healthy vs. sclerotic vessels. Similarly, we have investigated the potential for Fluoro-Gold to label in vivo all the endothelial cells in the brain as they co-localize with RECA, an endothelial cell marker. We have also developed Amylo-Glo, a fluorescent tracer that can detect neurotoxic A-beta aggregates in the brain. In this article, we will discuss the potential use of these novel histochemical markers to study the neurotoxicant induced brain. We will also discuss neurovascular strategies that may offer novel therapeutic opportunities for neurodegenerative disorders.Toxins 01/2014; 6(4):1453-70. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lower motor neuron dysfunction is one of the most debilitating neurological conditions and, as such, significantly impacts on the quality of life of affected individuals. Within the last decade, the engineering of mouse models of lower motor neuron diseases has facilitated the development of new therapeutic scenarios aimed at delaying or reversing the progression of these conditions. In this context, motor end plates (MEPs) are highly specialised regions on the skeletal musculature that offer minimally invasive access to the pre-synaptic nerve terminals, henceforth to the spinal cord motor neurons. Transgenic technologies can take advantage of the relationship between the MEP regions on the skeletal muscles and the corresponding motor neurons to shuttle therapeutic genes into specific compartments within the ventral horn of the spinal cord. The first aim of this neuroanatomical investigation was to map the details of the organisation of the MEP zones for the main muscles of the mouse hindlimb. The hindlimb was selected for the present work, as it is currently a common target to challenge the efficacy of therapies aimed at alleviating neuromuscular dysfunction. This MEP map was then used to guide series of intramuscular injections of Fluoro-Gold (FG) along the muscles' MEP zones, therefore revealing the distribution of the motor neurons that supply them. Targeting the entire MEP regions with FG increased the somatic availability of the retrograde tracer and, consequently, gave rise to FG-positive motor neurons that are organised into rostro-caudal columns spanning more spinal cord segments than previously reported. The results of this investigation will have positive implications for future studies involving the somatic delivery and retrograde transport of therapeutic transgenes into affected motor neurons. These data will also provide a framework for transgenic technologies aiming at maintaining the integrity of the neuromuscular junction for the treatment of lower motor neuron dysfunctions.Neuroscience 05/2014; · 3.33 Impact Factor