Understanding Romanowsky staining. I: The Romanowsky-Giemsa effect in blood smears.
ABSTRACT Normal blood smears were stained by the standardised azure B-eosin Y Romanowsky procedure recently introduced by the ICSH, and the classical picture resulted. The effects of varying the times and temperature of staining, the composition of the solvent (buffer concentration, methanol content, & pH), the concentration of the dyes, and the mode of fixation were studied. The results are best understood in terms of the following staining mechanism. Initial colouration involves simple acid and basic dyeing. Eosin yields red erythrocytes and eosinophil granules. Azure B very rapidly gives rise to blue stained chromatin, neutrophil specific granules, platelets and ribosome-rich cytoplasms; also to violet basophil granules. Subsequently the azure B in certain structures combines with eosin to give purple azure B-eosin complexes, leaving other structures with their initial colours. The selectivity of complex formation is controlled by rate of entry of eosin into azure B stained structures. Only faster staining structures (i.e. chromatin, neutrophil specific granules, and platelets) permit formation of the purple complex in the standard method. This staining mechanism illuminates scientific problems (e.g. the nature of 'toxic' granules) and assists technical trouble-shooting (e.g. why nuclei sometimes stain blue, not purple).
- The Histochemical Journal 02/1978; 10(1):1-29.
- Acta histochemica. Supplementband 02/1981; 24:151-68.
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ABSTRACT: Acid mucopolysaccharides have been extracted from whole rabbit polymorphonuclear leucocytes and from the cytoplasmic granules of these cells. The leucocyte acid mucopolysaccharides can be separated into two fractions by the solubility of their CPC complexes in solutions of differing salt concentration. One of these fractions appears to be identical with hyaluronic acid; the other appears to be an atypical chondroitin sulfate. On both a dry weight and total protein basis the polymorphonuclear leucocyte granule contains approximately 2.6 times as much acid mucopolysaccharide as does the whole cell. Hyaluronic acid is concentrated in the granules in particular; its function is unknown. These results do not indicate that all lysosomes contain abundant acid mucopolysaccharides, for no detectable carbohydrate of this class could be extracted from lysosome-rich alveolar macrophages.Journal of Experimental Medicine 02/1965; 121:39-48. · 13.21 Impact Factor