Interferons and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase: role in antimicrobial and antitumor effects.
ABSTRACT Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an interferon (IFN)-induced protein that initiates the metabolism of tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway. Although IDO can be induced by IFN-gamma in many cell types, only mononuclear phagocytes have been shown to be induced to decyclize tryptophan by all three IFN classes. Since tryptophan is an essential amino acid necessary for a variety of metabolic processes, depletion of available tryptophan may be an important mechanism for control of rapidly-dividing microbial pathogens and tumors. The purpose of this review is to present evidence that documents the effects of IFN-induced IDO on prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens, as well as on a variety of tumor cell lines.
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ABSTRACT: Pulmonary indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase [indoleamine: oxygen 2,3-oxidoreductase(decyclizing)] has been found to be induced (30- to 100-fold) in the mouse after a single intraperitoneal administration of bacterial endotoxin [Yoshida, R. & Hayaishi, O. (1978) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 3998-4000] or during in vivo virus infection [Yoshida, R., Urade, Y., Tokuda M. & Hayaishi, O. (1979) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76, 4084-4086]. In the present study, an in vitro system with mouse lung slices was developed in which bacterial endotoxin (5 micrograms/ml)produced an induction (approximately 10-fold) of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. The endotoxin was substituted by interferon from mouse L cells or mouse brain. The pulmonary enzyme activity increased almost linearly for 48 hr after addition of mouse interferon (10(4) units/ml) to lung slices. Interferon from mouse L cells or mouse brain produced a 10- to 15-fold increase in the enzyme activity, whereas that from human leukocytes was all but ineffective. The effect also was observed using highly purified L-cell interferon, prepared by poly(U) affinity column chromatography. When interferon was treated either by heat, alpha-chymotrypsin, or anti-interferon serum, such increase in the enzyme activity was diminished essentially to the same extent as seen in the antiviral activity. The increase in the enzyme activity was blocked when actinomycin D or cycloheximide was added to the slices before interferon treatment. These results suggest that the enzyme induction was produced by interferon and not by possible contaminants in the interferon preparations.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/1981; 78(1):129-32. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity was found to be ubiquitously distributed in various tissues of mice, such as brain, lung, stomach, intestine, and epididymis. The highest enzyme activity was detected in the alimentary canal and the epididymis. Developmental and daily rhythmic changes of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity and the effects of various regulatory factors were studied with the supernatant fractions derived from the small intestine and the epididymis. The enzyme activity in these two tissues was absent during the first 2 weeks (the weaning period). From the third week, there was a rapid increase in activities and a maximum was reached when the mice were 8 to 10 weeks of age (adolescence). The enzyme activity in the small intestine then gradually diminished to zero level at 30 weeks of age (prime) or later, while that in the epididymis remained at the high level throughout 69 weeks of age (senescence). The enzyme activity of the small intestine from mice fed during the hours 9:00–13:00 showed daily rhythmic changes; high in the daytime and low at night. Under night feeding (21:00–1:00), the enzyme activity was high at night and low in the daytime. The epididymal enzyme activity showed no daily fluctuations by either feeding schedule. With regard to the developmental and daily rhythmic changes, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity in the small intestine was similar to that of hepatic tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase. However, in contrast to the hepatic tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase activity, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity in the small intestine and the epididymis was not affected by adrenalectomy or intraperitoneal administration of adrenal steroid or tryptophan.Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 09/1980; 203(1):343-51. · 3.37 Impact Factor
- Cancer Research 06/1974; 34(5):1010-4. · 8.65 Impact Factor