A prospective study of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and the development of AIDS in subjects with hemophilia.
ABSTRACT We evaluated a multicenter cohort of 1219 subjects with hemophilia or related disorders prospectively, focusing on 319 subjects with documented dates of seroconversion to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The incidence rate of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) after seroconversion was 2.67 per 100 person-years and was directly related to age (from 0.83 in persons 1 to 11 years old up to 5.66 in persons 35 to 70 years old; Ptrend = 0.00003). The annual incidence of AIDS ranged from zero during the first year after seroconversion to 7 percent during the eighth year, with eight-year cumulative rates (+/- SE) of 13.3 +/- 5.3 percent for ages 1 to 17, 26.8 +/- 6.4 percent for ages 18 to 34, and 43.7 +/- 16.4 percent for ages 35 to 70. Serial immunologic and virologic markers (total numbers of CD4 lymphocytes, presence of serum interferon or HIV-1 p24 antigen, and low or absent serum levels of anti-p24 or anti-gp120) predicted a high risk for the subsequent development of AIDS. Adults 35 to 70 years old had a higher incidence of low CD4 counts than younger subjects (P less than or equal to 0.005), whereas adolescents had a low rate of anti-p24 loss (P = 0.0007) and subjects 1 to 17 years old had a lower incidence of AIDS after loss of anti-p24 (P = 0.03). These findings not only demonstrate that the risk of AIDS is related directly to age but also suggest that older adults are disproportionately affected during the earlier phases of HIV disease, that adolescents may have a low replication rate of HIV, and that children and adolescents may tolerate severe immunodeficiency better because they have fewer other infections or because of some unmeasured, age-dependent cofactor or immune alteration in the later phase of HIV disease.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: James Drummond, Jul 03, 2014
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ABSTRACT: The human immunodeficiency virus/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic represents the most serious public health problem in India. There is no denial of the enormity of the problem. The available surveillance data clearly indicates that HIV is prevalent in almost all parts of the country. Hence, knowledge of HIV incidence is important to formulate sensible strategies aimed at controlling the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The objective of this paper is to estimate the probability of dying in the stage of HIV (Grover and Das, 2005) in a year without passing to the state of AIDS (HIV mortality rate). Secondly, a double decrement life table approach (Biswas et al., 2006) has been followed for a cohort of hemophiliacs who were at risk of infection with the AIDS virus. This device consists essentially of two decrements: HIV positive hemophiliacs either depart from the AIDS-free group by eventually developing AIDS or by dying from other causes; those who eventually develop AIDS either remain alive with it until they die from it or die from other causes. The distribution of incubation period of AIDS is based on a two-stage parametric regression model (Brookmeyer and Goedert, 1989), proposed for the analysis of cohort of hemophiliacs.
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ABSTRACT: A subset of HLA-B*35 alleles, B*35-Px, are strongly associated with accelerated HIV-1 disease progression for reasons that are not understood. Interestingly, the alternative set of B*35 subtypes, B*35-PY, have no detectable impact on HIV-1 disease outcomes, even though they can present identical HIV-1 epitopes as B*35-Px molecules. Thus, the differential impact of these alleles on HIV-1 disease progression may be unrelated to interactions with HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T cells. Here, we show that the B*35-Px molecule B*3503 binds with greater affinity to immunoglobulin-like transcript 4 (ILT4), an inhibitory MHC class I receptor expressed on dendritic cells, than does the B*35-PY molecule B*3501, even though these two B*35 molecules differ by only one amino acid and present identical HIV-1 epitopes. The preferential recognition of B*3503 by ILT4 was associated with significantly stronger dendritic cell dysfunction in in vitro functional assays. Moreover, HIV-1-infected carriers of B*3503 had poor dendritic cell functional properties in ex vivo assessments when compared with carriers of the B*3501 allele. Differential interactions between HLA class I allele subtypes and immunoregulatory MHC class I receptors on dendritic cells thus provide a novel perspective for the understanding of MHC class I associations with HIV-1 disease progression and for the manipulation of host immunity against HIV-1.Journal of Experimental Medicine 12/2009; 206(13):2959-66. DOI:10.1084/jem.20091386 · 13.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The host genetic basis of differential outcomes in HIV infection, progression, viral load set point and highly active retroviral therapy (HAART) responses was examined for the common Y haplogroups in European Americans and African Americans. Accelerated progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and related death in European Americans among Y chromosome haplogroup I (Y-I) subjects was discovered. Additionally, Y-I haplogroup subjects on HAART took a longer time to HIV-1 viral suppression and were more likely to fail HAART. Both the accelerated progression and longer time to viral suppression results observed in haplogroup Y-I were significant after false-discovery-rate corrections. A higher frequency of AIDS-defining illnesses was also observed in haplogroup Y-I. These effects were independent of the previously identified autosomal AIDS restriction genes. When the Y-I haplogroup subjects were further subdivided into six I subhaplogroups, no one subhaplogroup accounted for the effects on HIV progression, viral load or HAART response. Adjustment of the analyses for population stratification found significant and concordant haplogroup Y-I results. The Y chromosome haplogroup analyses of HIV infection and progression in African Americans were not significant. Our results suggest that one or more loci on the Y chromosome found on haplogroup Y-I have an effect on AIDS progression and treatment responses in European Americans.Human Genetics 02/2009; 125(3):281-94. DOI:10.1007/s00439-008-0620-7 · 4.52 Impact Factor