Antigenic characterization of human interferon derived from amniotic membranes induced by virus.
ABSTRACT The presence of protein(s) with interferon (IFN)-like activity in culture fluid from human amniotic membranes induced by viruses has been described by different groups. However, the antigenic structure of this protein is controversial. Here we report the presence of IFN activity in supernatants of human amniotic membranes induced by Sendai virus. The major component responsible for this antiviral activity seems to be the classical IFN-beta. However, we were able to demonstrate the presence of a protein fraction with antiviral activity that does not bind to an affinity column for IFN-beta. The antiviral activity of this unbound fraction cannot be neutralized by antibodies to IFN-alpha, -beta, gamma, or by a mixture of them. We called this unbound fraction IFN-AM. We also report the development of a monoclonal antibody that does not neutralize the antiviral activity of IFN-alpha or IFN-beta but reduces the antiviral activity of a partially purified preparation of Sendai virus-induced amniotic membrane supernatant. These observations suggest that the IFN-AM (the unbound fraction that lacks reactivity with antibodies against known IFNs) contains a unique antigenic determinant that is not present, or, if so, is not located at the functional domain of IFN-alpha, -beta, or -gamma.
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ABSTRACT: The classical human interferon-alpha (HuIFN-alpha) gene family is estimated to consist of 15 or more nonallelic members which encode proteins sharing greater than 77% amino acid sequence homology. Low-stringency hybridization with a HuIFN-alpha cDNA probe permitted the isolation of two distinct classes of bovine IFN-alpha genes. The first subfamily (class I) is more closely related to the known HuIFN-alpha genes than to the second subfamily (class II) of bovine IFN-alpha genes. Extensive analysis of the human genome has revealed a HuIFN-alpha gene subfamily corresponding to the class II bovine IFN-alpha genes. The class I human and bovine IFN-alpha genes encode mature IFN polypeptides of 165 to 166 amino acids, whereas the class II IFN-alpha genes encode 172 amino acid proteins. Expression in Escherichia coli of members of both gene subfamilies results in polypeptides having potent antiviral activity. In contrast to previous studies which found no evidence of class II IFN-alpha protein or mRNA expression, we demonstrate that the class I and class II IFN-alpha genes are coordinately induced in response to viral infection.Molecular and Cellular Biology 05/1985; 5(4):768-79. · 5.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present study demonstrates that it is possible to produce interferon in vitro using human amniotic membrane infected with various myxoviruses. Interferon of human origin thus can be obtained without cell culture. After viral inoculation, interferon is eliminated into the culture medium for approximately 5 days. In most instances a maximum yield is obtained 48 hr after viral inoculation. The yield of interferon is comparable to the yield of interferon produced by human leukocytes when Sendai virus is used as the inducing virus. Ultraviolet irradiation of the virus increases the yield of interferon. Optimal yields of interferon are obtained at pH 7.4 and at 37°C. The biophysical properties of this interferon are different from those described for leukocytes employing the same inducing virus. The molecular weight is estimated to be 160,000. Although its mode of action has not been clearly defined like that of other interferons. HAM interferon acts during the vegetative phase of viral multiplication and for its action requires cellular RNA and protein synthesis.The Journal of Immunology 12/1967; 99(5):1036-41. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Immune interferon (IFN-gamma), endogenously labeled with [35S]methionine, was produced in human peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures stimulated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and phytohemagglutinin. 35S-IFN-gamma, immunoprecipitated from the crude culture fluid with a monoclonal antibody, was resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis into three monomeric forms with molecular weights of 25,000, 20,000, and 15,500, which we designate IFN-gamma I, II, and III, respectively. IFN-gamma I was the most, and IFN-gamma III the least, abundant in both immunoprecipitated 35S-IFN-gamma and chromatographically purified IFN-gamma preparations. Changes in the molecular size of the monomeric forms after glycosidase treatment suggested that IFN-gamma I contains more carbohydrate than IFN-gamma II, and that IFN-gamma III may not be glycosylated at all. Hence, the differences in the carbohydrate contents are likely to be the major cause of the molecular size heterogeneity of IFN-gamma I, II, and III.Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/1984; 259(7):4301-4. · 4.65 Impact Factor