Neuroendocrine aberrations in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.
ABSTRACT To further elucidate the neuroendocrine regulation of anterior pituitary function in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA), we measured serum LH, FSH, cortisol, GH, PRL, TSH concentrations simultaneously at frequent intervals for 24 h in 10 women with FHA and in 10 normal women in the early follicular phase (NC). Using the same data, we separately analyzed the cortisol-PRL responses to meals in these women. In addition, the pituitary responses to the simultaneous administration of GnRH, CRH, GHRH, and TRH were assessed in 6 FHA and 6 normal women. The 24-h secretory pattern of each hormone except TSH was altered in the women with FHA. Compared to normal women, the women with FHA had a 53% reduction in LH pulse frequency (P less than 0.0001) and an increase in the mean LH interpulse interval (P less than 0.01); LH pulse amplitude was similar. The 24-h integrated LH and FSH concentrations were reduced 30% (P = 0.01) and 19% (P less than 0.05), respectively. The mean cortisol pulse frequency, amplitude, interpulse interval, and duration were similar in the two groups, but integrated 24-h cortisol secretion was 17% higher in the women with FHA (P less than 0.05). This increase was greatest from 0800-1600 h, but also was present from 2400-0800 h. Cortisol levels were similar in the two groups from 1600-2400 h, resulting in an amplified circadian excursion. In contrast, the 24-h serum PRL levels were markedly lower at all times (P less than 0.0001), the sleep-associated nocturnal elevation of PRL was proportionately greater (P less than 0.05), and serum GH levels were increased at night in the women with FHA (P less than 0.05). Although 24-h serum TSH levels were similar at all times, T3 (P less than 0.05) and T4 (P less than 0.01) levels were lower in the FHA women. The responses of serum cortisol to lunch (P less than 0.01) and dinner (P less than 0.05) and those of serum PRL to lunch (P less than 0.05) and dinner (P = 0.08) were blunted in the women with FHA. Pituitary hormone increments in response to the simultaneous iv administration of GnRH, CRH, GHRH, and TRH were similar in the two groups, except for a blunted PRL response to TRH in the women with FHA (P less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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ABSTRACT: Individual vulnerability to psychopathologies is linked to a number of genetic polymorphisms including the serotonin transporter (5HTT) promoter polymorphic region (5HTTLPR). A single copy of the short variant (s-variant) allele of 5HTTLPR confers increased susceptibility to anxiety disorders and depression and decreased efficacy of serotonin-releasing agents in pharmacotherapy compared to the homozygous long 5HTTLPR variant (l/L). The data suggesting that the 5HTTLPR polymorphism modulates the efficacy of serotonin-releasing agents in pharmacotherapy is inconsistent. Other factors such as age, gender, and hormonal status could interact with 5HTTLPR genotype to affect individual physiological and behavioral responses to serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as citalopram. Indeed, estradiol and progesterone, the primary female steroid hormones, exert an array of effects on the serotonergic system, including 5HTT expression. The present study used ovariectomized female rhesus monkeys to determine the interaction between the 5HTTLPR polymorphism and the effects of midfollicular levels of estradiol and luteal levels of progesterone on serotonergic responsivity to acute citalopram administration. The increase in serum prolactin, a surrogate measure of serotonin activity, following citalopram administration was significantly larger in l/L females than in s-variant females over the course of two hours during concurrent estradiol and progesterone hormone replacement only. These data suggest that ovarian function and the 5HTTLPR polymorphism interact to gate serotonergic reactivity in females, suggesting that clinicians should be aware of the ovarian status and 5HTTLPR genotype of women when considering serotonergic pharmacotherapy in women.Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 08/2011; 19(6):401-8. DOI:10.1037/a0025008 · 2.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This article has demonstrated that stress and HPA axis activation affect the reproductive axis. Despite similarities in the HPA axis picture between women with major depression and those with hypothalamic amenorrhea and exercise or nutritional amenorrhea, no abnormalities in LH secretion have been documented in major depression. Lower estradiol in the follicular phase in depressed women and lower testosterone in depressed men however, have been observed [81, 92]. Although PMS would appear to be the best candidate for a mood disorder associated with abnormalities in reproductive hormones, no abnormalities in LH, estradiol or progesterone have been documented in PMS either . Similarly, blockade of progesterone appears to be ineffective as a treatment for PMS . Complete elimination of monthly cycling with leuprolide improves mood, however. No published studies have examined women with major depression to determine whether leuprolide will exacerbate or improve depressive symptoms. Some studies suggest beneficial effects of estrogen on mood in postmenopausal women, but no placebo controlled studies have explored estrogen augmentation in the treatment of major depression in either post- or premenopausal women, although estrogen is beneficial in women with perimenopause-related mood disorders .Endocrinology & Metabolism Clinics of North America 04/2002; 31(1):63-78. DOI:10.1016/S0889-8529(01)00002-0 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hypothalamic amenorrhoea (HA) is a syndrome associated with infertility and osteopenia in reproductive-age women. To understand better the natural history of this disorder, 28 women participated in a retrospective, questionnaire-based analysis to elucidate factors associated with spontaneous recovery. 54% of subjects developed HA related to an eating disorder, 21% related to stress +/- weight loss, and 25% without obvious contributing factors (idiopathic). HA associated with a clear precipitant had a better prognosis than idiopathic HA (71 versus 29% recovery; P < 0.05). Reversal of the inciting factor appeared necessary but not sufficient for recovery (83% recovery if factor reversed). Normal menarche occurred in 61% of subjects, oligomenorrhoea in 32%, and primary amenorrhoea in 7%. Oligomenorrhoea and normal menarche showed a trend toward better prognosis than primary amenorrhoea (NS). Compared with controls, 46% of HA patients had decreased frequency of LH pulses, 7% decreased amplitude, 18% decreases in both frequency and amplitude, 18% absent pulses, and 11% normal-appearing pulses. Pulse pattern at baseline did not predict recovery. The aetiology of HA at the time of presentation predicts subsequent recovery of menstrual function. In stress, weight loss, or eating disorder-related HA, rates of recovery exceeded 80% when precipitating factors were reversed. Idiopathic HA may represent a different disorder as recovery rates were <30%.Human Reproduction 10/2001; 16(10):2198-205. DOI:10.1093/humrep/16.10.2198 · 4.59 Impact Factor