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    ABSTRACT: The emergence of strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that are resistant to antimycobacterial agents is a worldwide problem whose global magnitude is not well described. We reviewed and tabulated 63 surveys of resistance to antituberculous drugs that were performed between 1985 and 1994. Rates of primary resistance to isoniazid, administered as a single agent, ranged from 0 to 16.9% (median rate, 4.1%); to streptomycin, 0.1%-23.5% (median, 3.5%); to rifampin, 0-3.0% (median, 0.2%); and to ethambutol, 0-4.2% (median, 0.1%). The rates of acquired resistance to these agents, which were higher than those of primary resistance, were as follows: isoniazid, 4.0%-53.7% (median rate, 10.6%); streptomycin, 0-19.4% (median, 4.9%); rifampin 0-14.5% (median, 2.4%); and ethambutol, 0-13.7% (median, 1.8%). The highest rates of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis have been reported in Nepal (48.0%), Gujarat, India (33.8%), New York City, (30.1%), Bolivia (15.3%), and Korea (14.5%). The WHO (World Health Organization) and the IUATLD (International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease) have established a global project of drug resistance surveillance that is based on standard epidemiological methods and quality control through an extensive network of reference laboratories. Accurate drug resistance surveillance data can be used to assess and improve national tuberculosis programs.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 02/1997; 24 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S121-30. DOI:10.1093/clinids/24.Supplement_1.S121 · 8.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To obtain current, representative information on current drug resistance patterns in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study whereby 167 isolates were tested for susceptibility to the anti-tuberculosis drugs commonly used in the country (isoniazid, thiacetazone, rifampicin, streptomycin and ethambutol). All hospitals, health centres and 6 of the 9 clinics in Addis Ababa were included in the study. Overall primary drug resistance was found to be 15.6% (26/167). Primary resistance to two or more drugs was 7.2% (12/167). The highest rate of primary resistance was to streptomycin (10.2%) followed by isoniazid (8.4%). Resistance to rifampicin was low (1.8%, 3/167) and to ethambutol nil. Multiple drug resistance in combinations with rifampicin was low. To prevent further development and spread of resistance, universal use of standard treatment protocol, control of the circulation of anti-tuberculosis drugs, training of health workers, expansion of strictly supervised short-course treatment and establishing a nation-wide and regular surveillance system are recommended.
    The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 03/1997; 1(1):64-7. · 2.32 Impact Factor

  • The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 08/1999; 3(7):561-3. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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