Teratogenic effects of benzodiazepine use during pregnancy.
ABSTRACT Eight children exposed in utero to benzodiazepines had characteristic dysmorphic features, growth aberrations, and central nervous system abnormalities from birth. Their dysmorphic characteristics resembled those of the fetal alcohol syndrome, although they had greater focal involvement of cranial nerves, with a sullen and expressionless face, and they more often had impairment of vitality at birth. One infant died and at autopsy had varying degrees of distortion of neuronal migration, with concomitant heterotopias. Five of the eight mothers had regularly consumed benzodiazepines, and the three remaining mothers had blood samples during pregnancy revealing benzodiazepine concentrations indicative of regular use. Our findings indicate that maternal consumption of benzodiazepines may be teratogenic in humans.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal endoscopy has a major diagnostic and therapeutic role in most gastrointestinal disorders; however, limited information is available about clinical efficacy and safety in pregnant patients. The major risks of endoscopy during pregnancy include potential harm to the fetus because of hypoxia, premature labor, trauma and teratogenesis. In some cases, endoscopic procedures may be postponed until after delivery. When emergency or urgent indications are present, endoscopic procedures may be considered with some precautions. United States Food and Drug Administration category B drugs may be used in low doses. Endoscopic procedures during pregnancy may include upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, enteroscopy of the small bowel or video capsule endoscopy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography. All gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures in pregnant patients should be performed in hospitals by expert endoscopists and an obstetrician should be informed about all endoscopic procedures. The endoscopy and flexible sigmoidoscopy may be safe for the fetus and pregnant patient, and may be performed during pregnancy when strong indications are present. Colonoscopy for pregnant patients may be considered for strong indications during the second trimester. Although therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography may be considered during pregnancy, this procedure should be performed only for strong indications and attempts should be made to minimize radiation exposure.World Journal of Gastroenterology 11/2014; 20(41):15241-15252. · 2.43 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Prescribing antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in pregnancy is a challenge to the clinician. A multitude of questions arise that must be addressed even prior to conception. In women with proven epilepsy, it may be dangerous to stop or even change the AED regimen during pregnancy. Changes could lead to injury or death in both the mother and the fetus. In the rare cases when discontinuing an AED is plausible, it should be done methodically in consultation with the physician prior to conception. Most women with epilepsy are consigned to continue their AEDs before, during and after pregnancy. The metabolism of AEDs may change drastically during pregnancy. These changes must be addressed by the clinician. Drug levels should be monitored consistently during pregnancy. The risks to the fetus must be delineated in terms of side effects from specific drugs as well as risks from the seizure disorder itself. Many AEDs have well known teratogenic effects, and these must be elucidated to the mother. There are risks (theoretical and evidence based) for obstetrical complications, poor neonatal outcomes, congenital malformations and even cognitive effects on the child later in life. These risks are addressed in this article with respect to individual AEDs. Recommendations include but are not limited to preconception counseling, taking folate pre and post conception, prescribing the most effective AED while minimizing risks, and avoiding polytherapy and valproate if possible.Therapeutic advances in drug safety. 04/2012; 3(2):71-87.
Article: Teratology in the 20th centuryNeurotoxicology and Teratology 03/2003; 25(2):131-282. · 3.22 Impact Factor