Amino acid sequences of pilins from serologically distinct strains of Bacteroides nodosus.
ABSTRACT Amino acid sequences of pilin from a strain of Bacteroides nodosus from serogroup B (234) and serogroup C (217) were determined. The amino-terminal N-methylphenlalanine residue of both proteins was followed by a hydrophobic sequence of 30 residues closely related to the N-terminal sequence of other pili having an amino-terminal residue of N-methylphenylalanine. These data lend support to the hypothesis that in pilins of this type, the amino-terminal sequence functions as a transport signal necessary for pilin to reach its external environment, as well as promoting intersubunit interactions for maintenance of the structural integrity of the pilus. Two hydrophilic hypervariable regions can be discerned across the pilin sequences, indicating possible locations of antigenic domains.
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ABSTRACT: Expression of the pilin gene, pilA, of Pseudomonas aeruginosa requires the alternative sigma factor, sigma 54, and also two other transcriptional regulators encoded by the pilS and pilR genes. These two linked genes, which have been identified by transposon insertion mutagenesis, share significant amino acid sequence homology with members of the two-component family of regulators. The transcriptional regulator, PilR, has been described previously. PilS, a 37,285 Dalton protein, shares significant homology with the protein kinase sensors of the two-component regulatory family. PilS, however, has no hydrophobic domains which might be membrane-spanning alpha-helices, suggesting that PilS is a cytoplasmic protein. Characterization of the pilS gene revealed that when overexpressed in Escherichia coli by the bacteriophage T7 promoter it specifies a protein of approximately 40,000 daltons, corresponding to the molecular weight of PilS predicted from the deduced amino acid sequence. Deletion analysis of the pilS promoter fused to a promoterless lacZ gene further showed that a significant region upstream of pilS is essential for expression of pilS and pilR, suggesting a need for transcriptional activation. The pilA promoter can be activated in E. coli but only when PilR and sigma 54 are present. This work suggests that the PilS activation signal is received in the bacterial cytoplasm, and that the mechanism of PilS/PilR-mediated signal transduction resulting in activation of the pilin gene promoter is likely to be similar to that of other two-component systems.MGG - Molecular and General Genetics 07/1994; 243(5):565-74. DOI:10.1007/BF00284205
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ABSTRACT: Sequences of pilin genes from four strains of serogroup B of the ovine pathogen Bacteroides nodosus have been determined. These sequences permit comparisons of amino acid sequence between pilins from different subtypes (B1, B2, B3, B4) of the B serogroup and assessment of intraserogroup variation. Pili of B. nodosus strains 234 (B1) and 183 (B2) were produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa harboring a plasmid-borne B. nodosus pilin gene, and these pili were used in sheep vaccination trials. Pili from strain 183 (B2) were found to be a senior antigen to pili from strains of other B subtypes, providing protection against footrot infection caused by strains of the other B subtypes. Pili of this strain are therefore the most suitable candidate for inclusion in a pilus-based vaccine. Pili of strain 234 from subtype B1, the reference strain of the B serogroup, provided poor protection against infection with other subtypes.Infection and Immunity 07/1990; 58(6):1545-51. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pilin proteins assemble into Type IV pili (T4P), surface-displayed bacterial filaments with virulence functions including motility, attachment, transformation, immune escape, and colony formation. However, challenges in crystallizing full-length fiber-forming and membrane protein pilins leave unanswered questions regarding pilin structures, assembly, functions, and vaccine potential. Here we report pilin structures of full-length DnFimA from the sheep pathogen Dichelobacter nodosus and FtPilE from the human pathogen Francisella tularensis at 2.3 and 1 Å resolution, respectively. The DnFimA structure reveals an extended kinked N-terminal α-helix, an unusual centrally located disulfide, conserved subdomains, and assembled epitopes informing serogroup vaccines. An interaction between the conserved Glu-5 carboxyl oxygen and the N-terminal amine of an adjacent subunit in the crystallographic dimer is consistent with the hypothesis of a salt bridge between these groups driving T4P assembly. The FtPilE structure identifies an authentic Type IV pilin and provides a framework for understanding the role of T4P in F. tularensis virulence. Combined results define a unified pilin architecture, specialized subdomain roles in pilus assembly and function, and potential therapeutic targets.Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2011; 286(51):44254-65. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M111.297242 · 4.60 Impact Factor