Regional versus general anesthesia in high-risk surgical patients: The need for a clinical trial
Division of Internal Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.Journal of Clinical Anesthesia (Impact Factor: 1.19). 02/1989; 1(6):414-21. DOI: 10.1016/0952-8180(89)90003-2
Regional anesthesia is often preferred over general anesthesia for patients with cardiovascular disease because of presumed decreased risk of perioperative myocardial ischemia. However, few studies have addressed this issue directly. To determine whether the type of anesthesia is independently associated with myocardial ischemia, records of 134 patients undergoing peripheral vascular grafting under general or regional anesthesia were examined. There were no significant differences preoperatively between groups in ASA class, age, sex, or prevalence of angina, diabetes, or hypertension. Twelve patients developed myocardial ischemia or infarction within 7 days of operation; 11 of these 12 patients had received regional anesthesia (p less than 0.015). The association between anesthetic approach and perioperative myocardial ischemia or infarction remained after adjustment for preoperative factors associated with ischemia or with type of anesthesia. General anesthesia does not appear to be associated with increased risk of myocardial ischemia, and stringent recommendations to avoid it in this population may be unfounded. A clinical trial is needed to define more clearly the risks and benefits of different types of anesthesia in high-risk patients.
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ABSTRACT: Perioperative myocardial ischemia predicts unfavorable outcomes and occurs in as many as 41% of patients with coronary artery disease or cardiac risk factors undergoing noncardiac surgery. To determine the prevalence of myocardial ischemia, we studied 52 consecutive unselected patients undergoing elective hip arthroplasty during lumbar regional anesthesia. Patients were continuously monitored for 6 days using a three-channel Holter monitor. Ninety-nine episodes of myocardial ischemia occurred in 16 patients (31%), six of whom were considered preoperatively to be at low risk for coronary artery disease. Forty-four percent of the ischemic episodes were preceded or accompanied by a heart rate greater than or equal to 100/min and 56% by a heart rate greater than or equal to 90 beats/min. Ninety-six percent of the ischemic episodes were clinically silent, and 82% were not related to patient care events. Thirteen episodes of myocardial ischemia occurred preoperatively, 1 intraoperatively, and 85 postoperatively. The incidence of postoperative ischemic episodes showed a circadian variation: 44% occurred between 6 AM and noon, 33% between noon and 6 PM, 17% between 6 PM and midnight, and 6% between midnight and 6 AM. Six adverse cardiac events occurred during hospitalization (three of the six among patients with perioperative ischemia) and an additional four events during a follow-up period of 12 months (all four events occurred among patients with perioperative ischemia). Patients with perioperative myocardial ischemia had a relative risk of 2.6 (95% confidence interval 1.3-5.2) to develop an adverse cardiac event postoperatively.Anesthesiology 05/1992; 76(4):518-27. DOI:10.1097/00000542-199204000-00006 · 5.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Quantitative assessment of myocardial ischaemia during incremental spinal, single-dose spinal and general anaesthesia may provide guidelines for the choice of anaesthetic technique for osteosynthesis of hip fractures in the elderly atherosclerotic individual. Forty-three patients with coronary artery disease were allocated to receive either incremental spinal anaesthesia (bupivacaine 0.5% plain) (A), single-dose spinal anaesthesia (2.5 mL of bupivacaine 0.5% plain) (B) or general anaesthesia (fentanyl, thiopentone, atracurium, enflurane, N2O/O2) (C) for hip surgery. ST segment monitoring was performed from the induction of anaesthesia and for the following 48 h, and perioperative hypotension, blood loss and fluid therapy were recorded. ST depression developed in two out of 14 (A), seven out of 15 (B) and six out of 14 (C) patients (P = 0.14). In (A), a total of seven ST depressions occurred in the observation period as opposed to 125 in (B) and 16 in (C) (P < 0.05). Intra-operative ST depression only occurred in (B). Three (A), 33 (B) and 40 (C) hypotensive events were recorded (P < 0.002). Altogether, 56% of hypotensive patients developed ST depression compared with 10% of normotensive patients (P < 0.003). In (A), 1.6 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine were used as opposed to the fixed 2.5 mL dose in (B) (P < 0.001). In the first post-operative week, mortality was higher in (B) (P < 0.05) but, after 1 month, there was no significant difference in mortality between the three groups. The incidence of hypotension and myocardial ischaemia was lowest in the group receiving incremental spinal anaesthesia.European Journal of Anaesthesiology 11/1998; 15(6):656-63. DOI:10.1097/00003643-199811000-00006 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: One hundred and twenty-seven patients undergoing major lower limb joint replacement surgery were studied to determine the incidence of silent myocardial ischemia and to ascertain any link between pre-operative cardiac risk factors, silent myocardial ischaemia and postoperative morbidity. Patients underwent ambulatory ECG monitoring for 4 days (on the pre-operative night and for 3 days postoperatively). Postoperative cardiorespiratory symptomatology and morbidity was assessed by questionnaire at 3 months. Eighty-seven patients had risk factors for silent myocardial ischaemia; 42 patients (30 with risk factors) had peri-operative silent myocardial ischaemia. The median ischaemic loads (range) were 1.04 (0.32-13.31) min.h-1 pre-operatively and 5.53 (0.26-56.39), 6.69 (0.04-42.71) and 1.23 (0.1-53.74) min.h-1 on postoperative days 1-3, respectively. Risk factors did not predict the occurrence of silent myocardial ischaemia or an increased ischaemic load pre-operatively or overall postoperatively. New symptoms (chest pain, palpitations, breathlessness or fatigue) were associated with both silent myocardial ischaemia and ischaemic load (p < 0.05). Thus cardiac risk factors do not predict the occurrence of silent myocardial ischaemia or adverse outcome. Peri-operative silent myocardial ischaemia was associated with increased postoperative fatigue.Anaesthesia 03/1999; 54(3):235-40. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2044.1999.00713.x · 3.38 Impact Factor
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