The name Fryns syndrome was given to a new variable multiple congenital anomaly syndrome, almost always lethal, described in 1978, and now known to be autosomal recessive. Since that date, 20 patients have been reported in the literature. We describe 8 new cases, 6 of which were diagnosed in a series of 112,276 consecutive births (livebirths and perinatal deaths). The prevalence of this syndrome can be estimated to be around 0.7 per 10,000 births. These new cases confirm that the most frequent anomalies are diaphragmatic defects, lung hypoplasia, cleft lip and palate (often bilateral), cardiac defects (septal defects and aortic arch anomalies), renal cysts (type II, III or IV), urinary tract malformations, and distal limb hypoplasia. Most patients also have hypoplastic external genitalia and anomalies of internal genitalia (bifid or hypoplastic uterus, immature testes). The digestive tract is also often abnormal: duodenal atresia, pyloric hyperplasia, malrotation and common mesentery are present in half of the patients. When the brain was examined, more than half were abnormal (Dandy-Walker anomaly and agenesis of corpus callosum). A few patients demonstrated cloudy cornea. We examined the eyes of three patients histologically: two of them showed retinal dysplasia with rosettes and gliosis of the retina, thickness of posterior capsula of lens and irregularities of the Bowman membrane. Four of our cases were diagnosed prenatally between 24 and 27 weeks. It is to be expected that prenatal diagnosis will be made often and earlier in the future, as the spectrum of anomalies of the Fryns syndrome can easily be evidenced by sonography.
"These include Opitz B/GGG syndrome [OMIM 300000], due to mutations in MID1 [OMIM 300552] at Xp22.3 , in which laryngeal malformations (cleft, diastema) are more usual; McKusick–Kaufman syndrome [OMIM 236700], which is allelic with Bardet–Biedl syndrome [BBS-6, OMIM 209900] and due to mutations in MKKS [OMIM 604896] [51,53], a gene related to members of the chaperonin family; and Oculo-Auriculo-Vertebral Spectrum [OAVS, OMIM 164210], for which epigenetic dysregulation of BPAX1 has been proposed as an aetiological mechanism . Putative single gene or sporadic disorders featuring esophageal atresia for which there is as yet no confirmed genetic aetiology include Fryns syndrome [OMIM 229850] , and congenital microgastria–limb reduction complex [OMIM 156810] , discussed further below. Finally, there are several reports of a syndrome of multiple gastro-intestinal atresias, including esophageal atresia/tracheo-esophageal fistula, with gall bladder agenesis and neonatal diabetes mellitus, associated in some but not all cases with pancreatic anomalies . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Esophageal atresia with/without tracheo-esophageal fistula is a relatively common malformation, occurring in around 1 in 3500 births. In around half of cases, additional malformations are present, forming either a syndrome of known genetic aetiology, or a recognised association, of which the VACTERL association (Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiac malformations, Tracheo-Esophageal fistula, Renal and Limb malformations) is the most recognised. Recently, microdeletions of the FOX gene cluster at 16q24.1, comprising four genes, FOXF1, MTHFSD, FOXC2 and FOXL1, were reported to cause a phenotype resembling VACTERL association, with vertebral anomalies, gastro-intestinal atresias (esophageal, duodenal and anal), congenital heart malformations, and urinary tract malformations, as well as a rare lethal developmental anomaly of the lung, alveolar capillary dysplasia. This article reviews these new data alongside other genetic causes of syndromic esophageal atresia, and also highlights information from relevant mouse models, particularly those for genes in the Sonic Hedgehog pathway.
European journal of medical genetics 10/2009; 53(1):6-13. DOI:10.1016/j.ejmg.2009.10.001 · 1.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Congenital diaphragmatic defects (CDD) are easily accessible to ultrasonographic diagnosis. In spite of progress in the management of prenatally detected cases, the mortality rate for CDD remains high. The prognosis depends mainly on the severity of fetal lung hypoplasia but is also linked to the associated malformations. We report on 77 cases of CDD ascertained between 1982 and 1988 from 136,161 consecutive births in the Bouches du Rhône area. The spontaneous perinatal mortality rate was 61% with 28 early post-natal deaths and 14 stillbirths. Eight pregnancies were terminated after prenatal diagnosis. The diaphragmatic defect was associated with other congenital anomalies in 33 cases, more often among stillborn (92.8%) than liveborn infants (23.6%). A chromosomal abnormality was present in 9 cases representing 11.6% of all CDD and in 27.2% of cases with other anomalies. A Mendelian disorder was present in 9 cases (eight Fryns syndrome and one Fraser syndrome). This study underlines the necessity of a systematic work up of prenatally diagnosed cases, including fetal karyotyping and analysis of associated malformations in order to adapt the management of the pregnancy and delivery to the prognosis.
European Journal of Pediatrics 09/1991; 150(10):726-9. DOI:10.1007/BF01958765 · 1.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on a new case of ultrasonographic prenatal diagnosis of Fryns' syndrome during the second pregnancy of a young woman whose first child died 90 min after birth and was diagnosed as having this autosomal recessive condition. The feasibility of diagnosis in utero and timing in the phenotypic expression of this multimalformation syndrome are discussed.
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