The role of cephalosporins in surgical prophylaxis
ABSTRACT Worldwide, cephalosporins are the most widely used antibiotics for surgical prophylaxis. These drugs are recommended for prophylaxis because of their good safety profile, excellent antimicrobial activity against most of the bacteria causing postoperative wound infection, satisfactory penetration into critical tissues and, most importantly, a strong track record of efficacy in clinical trials. There are still unresolved questions about the choice of cephalosporin and the timing and duration of administration. In vaginal hysterectomy, Caesarian section, and biliary tract surgery a single preoperative dose of any one of several cephalosporins has been used effectively. There are no apparent benefits in using a longer course for prophylaxis, nor for choosing a third-generation cephalosporin rather than a first- or second-generation cephalosporin. Several cephalosporins have been employed successfully in cardiac surgery, mostly in trials using a 24-48 h regimen. A recent study with a single preoperative dose of ceftriaxone has produced favourable results. In elective colorectal surgery definitive conclusions are difficult because of limited controlled studies. The best results have been achieved with an oral bowel preparation such as neomycin-erythromycin. Metronidazole, combined with another agent to suppress facultative bacteria, has also produced excellent reduction in wound infections. While it is not firmly established that a systemic cephalosporin contributes to the proven good effects of an oral bowel preparation, there is evidence that the choice of the cephalosporin should be based, in part, on its activity against anaerobic bacteria.
Article: Cefotaxime and prophylaxis[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cefotaxime, a third-generation cephalosporin, is active against many troublesome gram-negative organisms and anaerobes that now more frequently cause nosocomial infection. Single-dose cefotaxime, 1 g or 2 g administered 30 minutes prior to surgery, has been proven to be effective as prophylaxis for infection following gastrointestinal, biliary, obstetric, gynecologic, and genito-urinary procedures. When published trials are compiled, single-dose cefotaxime is more effective than multiple-dose cefazolin (p <0.01) in these types of surgery. Unfortunately, the dramatic increase in cephalosporin use has been accompanied by the emergence of resistant organisms such as enterococci and fungi. In Europe, some centers successfully prevent nosocomial pneumonia in intubated patients by decontaminating gastric contents with a combination of nonabsorbable antimicrobial agents including cefotaxime. Further trials may validate this concept for use in the United States.The American Journal of Medicine 04/1990; 88(4):S32-S37. DOI:10.1016/0002-9343(90)90325-8 · 5.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The value of antibiotic prophylaxis in abdominal hysterectomy was reviewed by meta-analysis. Two independent literature searches (1986-1988) yielded 150 relevant papers, however, only 17 (11.3%) papers met our inclusion criteria. The selected papers described prospective, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled studies of patients undergoing elective abdominal hysterectomy. In 14 of 17 (82%) trials, first- or second-generation cephalosporins were used. Results pooled confirm that antibiotic prophylaxis will reduce infectious morbidity following elective abdominal hysterectomy. Hospital stay is little affected and significant levels of infectious morbidity remain.Pharmaceutisch Weekblad Scientific Edition 01/1991; 12(6A):296-8; discussion 299. DOI:10.1007/BF01967837
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ABSTRACT: In 1988 a survey of New Zealand general surgeons was conducted, by post, on the subject of routine antimicrobial prophylaxis for elective colorectal surgery. Surgeons who gave routine prophylaxis were asked for details of their regimens; those who did not were asked for their reasons. One hundred and seventy-five questionnaires were distributed and 167 were returned. Of these, 124 came from surgeons with a colorectal practice, and 118 of the 124 surgeons satisfactorily completed the questionnaire. Routine antimicrobial prophylaxis was given by 96.6% (114 of 118). Of the 114 surgeons prescribing prophylaxis, one antimicrobial agent was used by 36.8%, two were employed by 53.5% and three or five were used by the remainder. The most commonly used (74.6%) antimicrobial agents were cephalosporins which were prescribed, alone or in combination with a nitroimidazole. The most frequent duration (46.4%) of antimicrobial administration was a combination of both the peri- and postoperative periods. When antimicrobial spectrum, route and duration of administration were all taken into account, 49.1 % (56 of 114) were considered to give satisfactory regimens. Excessively protracted administration was the most frequent reason for unsatisfactory classification. The results of this survey demonstrate serious deficiencies in the practice of antimicrobial prophylaxis in elective colorectal surgery. These should be addressed through a programme of continuing education.Australian and New Zealand Journal of Surgery 02/1991; 61(1):29-33. DOI:10.1111/j.1445-2197.1991.tb00122.x