[Neoadjuvant chemotherapy of osteosarcoma. Results of the cooperative studies COSS-80 and COSS-82 after 7 and 5 years].
ABSTRACT The analysis of the results of two German Pediatric Oncology (GPO) cooperative, neoadjuvant chemotherapy trials after a followup of 7 (COSS-80) and 5 years (COSS-82) allows several conclusions concerning both systemic and local treatment of patients suffering from osteosarcoma. A metastasis free survival rate (MFS) of 59% was reached in the reduced study group of the first study, COSS-80. In addition to size of the primary tumor, the extent of chemotherapy induced devitalisation was very closely related to the probability of survival without systemic recurrence. Following this observation, it was the aim of the next study, COSS-82, to improve the MFS of patients with poorly responding tumors by altering their postoperative chemotherapy regimen. However, this "salvage" approach failed. Moreover, an effort to reduce treatment related toxicity by sparing some patients from the side effects of two particularly toxic drugs, adriamycin (ADR) and cisplatinum (CDDP), by only giving these postoperatively and only after insufficient tumor response to preoperative therapy, failed (MFS of the study arm of COSS-82 45% at 5 years vs. 68% for the control arm with primary use of ADR and CDDP, p less than 0.05). The value of an effective primary chemotherapy is further enhanced by the observation, that en bloc resection of tumors which were poor responders to preoperative therapy was associated with an increased risk of distant metastases when compared with amputation and rotation plasty, while this was not the case for good responders. In conclusion, both systemic tumor control and optimal local therapy require that all effects drugs are to be used as early as possible in the primary treatment of osteosarcoma, in order to enforce maximum tumor cell destruction and hence an optimistic outlook for the individual patient.
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ABSTRACT: The primary and secondary objectives of the current study were to improve the > or = 90% tumor necrosis rate and assess the toxicity profile of the neoadjuvant high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) regimen, respectively. Twenty-two patients with AJCC Stage IIB high-grade osteosarcoma were included in the current study. Two cycles of an induction chemotherapy regimen including cisplatin, doxorubicin, and ifosfamide followed by HDC and autologous peripheral blood stem cell support or transplantation (APBSCT) were given. After engraftment was achieved, the patients underwent limb-sparing surgery (LSS) followed by three to six cycles of postoperative chemotherapy depending on the tumor necrosis rate. The median follow-up, the total duration of treatment, and the time to surgery were 23.7 months, 5.96 months, and 3.03 months, respectively. The necrosis rate was at least 90% in 82% of the cases. The 3-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 83% and 70%, respectively. Leukopenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, nausea and emesis, and mucositis were the most frequent Grade 3 and Grade 4 toxicities (according to the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria [version 2.0]) of induction, high-dose, and adjuvant chemotherapies. At the time of last follow-up, no patient had died of chemotherapeutic toxicity. LSS was performed in all patients. Surgery-related complications were reported in 3 of 22 patients. Functional scoring results were excellent in eight patients, good in nine patients, fair in two patients, and poor in three patients. The results of the current Phase II study suggest that neoadjuvant HDC provides a greater than 90% necrosis rate with acceptable toxicity. A short duration of therapy and the feasibility of LSS in all patients are additional advantages of this approach.Cancer 09/2005; 104(5):1058-65. · 5.20 Impact Factor