Long acting somatostatin analogue in dumping syndrome.
ABSTRACT The effect of long acting somatostatin analogue, SMS 201-995, on postprandial dumping syndrome was studied in eight patients with Billroth II gastric resection. Each patient was subjected to two oral glucose challenges with 75 g glucose. One challenge was premedicated with 50 micrograms SMS 201-995 subcutaneously 15 min before the oral intake of glucose, the other with placebo. With placebo all patients experienced the subjective symptoms of the early dumping syndrome with significant (P less than 0.001) increases (mean (s.d.)) in pulse rate (from 66 (8) to 102 (10) beats/min), in packed cell volume (from 0.36 (0.05) to 0.43 (0.1) l/l) and in the plasma levels of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (from 3.0 (0.5) to 10.2 (1.8) pmol/l). During the somatostatin study the subjective symptoms and the changes in the various parameters were not detected. In the control study seven patients showed postprandial hypoglycemia. In these patients significant elevations (P less than 0.001) in the insulin level (from 10 (0.9) to 40 (9.1) microE/ml) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) concentration (from 100 (13) to 220 (41) ng/l) were seen, compared with the initial values. During the application of SMS 201-995 hypoglycaemia did not develop and plasma insulin and GIP concentrations remained unchanged. These results indicate that the long acting somatostatin analogue alleviates the symptoms of early and late postprandial dumping syndromes.
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ABSTRACT: We report our experience with the use of octreotide as primary or adjunctive therapy in children with various gastrointestinal disorders. A pharmacy database identified patients who received octreotide for gastrointestinal diseases. Indications for octreotide use, dosing, effectiveness, and adverse events were evaluated by chart review. A total of 21 patients (12 males), aged 1 month to 13 years, were evaluated. Eleven received octreotide for massive gastrointestinal bleeding caused by portal hypertension-induced lesions (n=7), typhlitis (1), Meckel's diverticulum (1), and indefinite source (2). Blood transfusion requirements were reduced from 23 ± 9 mL/kg (mean ± SD) to 8 ± 15 mL/kg (P<0.01). Four patients with pancreatic pseudocyst and/or ascites received octreotide over 14.0 ± 5.7 days in 2 patients. In 3 children, pancreatic pseudocyst resolved in 12 ± 2 days and pancreatic ascites resolved in 7 days in 2. Three patients with chylothorax received octreotide for 14 ± 7 days with complete resolution in each. Two infants with chronic diarrhea received octreotide over 11 ± 4.2 months. Stool output decreased from 85 ± 21 mL/kg/day to 28 ± 18 mL/kg/day, 3 months after initiation of octreotide. The child with dumping syndrome responded to octreotide in a week. Adverse events developed in 4 patients: Q-T interval prolongation and ventricular fibrillation, hyperglycemia, growth hormone deficiency, and hypertension. Octreotide provides a valuable addition to the therapeutic armamentum of the pediatric gastroenterologist for a wide variety of disorders. Serious adverse events may occur and patients must be closely monitored.Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2012; 18(2):87-94. · 1.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effect of somatostatin on the gastrointestinal tract is complex; it inhibits the release of gastrointestinal hormones, the exocrine function of the stomach, pancreas and bile, decreases motility and influences absorption as well. Based on these diverse effects there was an increased expectation towards the success of somatostatin therapy in various gastrointestinal disorders. The preconditions for somatostatin treatment was created by the development of long acting somatostatin analogues (octreotide, lanreotide). During the last twenty-five years large trials clarified the role of somatostatin analogues in the treatment of various gastrointestinal diseases. This study summarizes shortly these results. Somatostatin analogue treatment could be effective in various pathological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, however, this therapeutic modality became a part of the clinical routine only in neuroendocrine tumours and adjuvant treatment of oesophageal variceal bleeding and pancreatic fistulas. Orv. Hetil., 2013, 154, 1535-1540.Orvosi Hetilap 09/2013; 154(39):1535-40.
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ABSTRACT: Octreotide is a long acting synthetic analogue of native somatostatin that exerts a potent inhibitory effect on the release of a wide variety of peptide hormones from the gastroenteropancreatic endocrine system. It represents a new dimension to traditional therapies in the treatment of various conditions characterised by excessive peptide production and secretion, particularly when conventional therapeutic approaches have either been exhausted or have provided suboptimal symptomatic control. While emergency sclerotherapy remains the definitive treatment for both the arrest of acute variceal bleeding episodes and the prevention of further bleeding, its effective use depends on the patients being admitted to a hospital well versed in the procedure. There remains, therefore, a need for an easily administered and effective treatment for acute variceal bleeding emergencies. Although not all investigators agree, it appears that somatostatin is effective, at least for the duration of its administration. Given its evident advantages over somatostatin, octreotide is likely to make a major contribution towards the treatment of variceal bleeding, at least as an emergency treatment during the bleeding crisis. The potential for octreotide in the management of gastrointestinal and pancreatic fistulae is considerable. While sharing the inhibitory actions of native somatostatin on gastrointestinal motility and secretion, it can be administered at home by suitably motivated patients. Suppression of gastrointestinal peptides from the gastrointestinal tract by octreotide appears to parallel symptomatic improvements in patients with dumping syndrome, with normalisation of plasma glucagon and insulin profiles as well as suppression of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), motilin, neurotensin, pancreatic polypeptide and C peptide being reported. Release of polypeptide hormones, such as VIP and gastrin, by tumour cells in the gastroenteropancreatic system results in profuse diarrhoea. While the nature of the diarrhoea depends on the specific peptide secreted by the tumour, all possess a common secretory mechanism which makes them sensitive to treatment with octreotide. Octreotide is suitable for the treatment of VIPoma since it inhibits released VIP. Although the available data are derived primarily from small studies and case reports, initial responses are encouraging. By reducing the circulating levels of VIP, octreotide improves diarrhoea in these patients. Octreotide has also been evaluated in several trials in patients with the carcinoid syndrome, with symptomatic improvement being observed in over 75% of cases. Clinically significant improvements in diarrhoea (elimination, or reduction of > 50%) have been observed in the great majority (up to 83%) of treated patients. Slowed tumour growth, as well as an improvement in diarrhoea, has been observed during long term treatment. A number of miscellaneous conditions can give rise to severe secretory diarrhoea, and include long standing neuropathic diabetes mellitus, short bowel syndrome after intestinal resection, intestinal graft-versus-host disease and coeliac plexus block. Idiopathic hypersecretory diarrhoea may also occur, particularly in infants. A number of studies and patient reports have shown octreotide to be a valuable adjunct in the management of patients with such conditions, and to be worthy of further investigation. Now that case report data have been confirmed by clinical trials, it is becoming evident that octreotide is a valuable treatment in the management of otherwise treatment-refractory severe diarrhoea in AIDS patients.Drug Investigation. 01/1992; 4(3).