Nutritional factors and cancers of the breast, endometrium and ovary.
ABSTRACT From an overview of epidemiological evidence on nutrition, diet and cancers of the breast, endometrium and ovary, the following indications can be drawn: Overweight and obesity are causally related to endometrial and post-menopausal breast cancer, and may account for as much as one third of the cases of endometrial and one tenth of breast cancer in Europe. It is not known whether obesity or overweight early in life has any role on breast cancer risk, nor whether obesity influences ovarian carcinogenesis. Overweight tends to be associated with an unfavourable prognosis for breast cancer. Despite extensive research, the available knowledge on diet and breast cancer is largely inconsistent, and the results from ecological and individual-based studies are contradictory in relation to fat, proteins, total energy, alcohol, etc. There are only scanty data on diet and endometrial or ovarian cancer, which tend to suggest role for fat (or animal fat) in the risk of these neoplasms. The evidence on diet and breast, ovarian and endometrial carcinogenesis is still too scanty or inconsistent to be of any practical preventive value. Thus, the only clear indication for prevention is that a reduction of overweight would avoid a substantial number of cases of endometrial and post-menopausal breast cancer.
Article: Obesity in post menopausal women with a family history of breast cancer: prevalence and risk awareness.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Obesity and physical activity are modifiable risk factors in the development of post-menopausal breast cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness and prevalence of these factors in women attending family history clinics. Women attending the breast cancer family history clinic from 2004 to 2006 completed a questionnaire (SP15 format) about their knowledge of and exposure to various diet and lifestyle factors. All women had been counselled by a Consultant Cancer Geneticist and were given verbal and written information on the effect of life style on breast cancer risk. Responses were analysed using SPSStrade mark software. The response rate was 70% and two thirds of women were post-menopausal. The prevalence of obesity in post-menopausal women was 37% with 40% being overweight. The majority of women consumed a healthy balanced diet. Only 15% of post-menopausal women exercised for more than 4 hours per week. Two-thirds of women correctly stated that obesity increases their breast cancer risk and 73% of these were overweight or obese. Over 87% were correctly aware of the role of family history, 68% of a high fat diet, and 57% of hormone replacement therapy in the development of breast cancer. Women attending family history clinics lead a high risk lifestyle for the development of breast cancer with high prevalence of obesity and low levels of physical activity. A campaign of patient education is needed to promote healthy lifestyle choices, especially physical activity, in these high-risk women.International Seminars in Surgical Oncology 02/2009; 6:1.
Article: Wine and other alcohol consumption and risk of ovarian cancer in the California Teachers Study cohort.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Whether alcohol consumption influences ovarian cancer risk is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the association between alcohol intake at various ages and risk of ovarian cancer. Among 90,371 eligible members of the California Teachers Study cohort who completed a baseline alcohol assessment in 1995-1996, 253 women were diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer by the end of 2003. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Consumption of total alcohol, beer, or liquor in the year prior to baseline, at ages 30-35 years, or at ages 18-22 years was not associated with risk of ovarian cancer. Consumption of at least one glass per day of wine, compared to no wine, in the year before baseline was associated with increased risk of developing ovarian cancer: RR = 1.57 (95% CI 1.11-2.22), P (trend) = 0.01. The association with wine intake at baseline was particularly strong among peri-/post-menopausal women who used estrogen-only hormone therapy and women of high socioeconomic status. Alcohol intake does not appear to affect ovarian cancer risk. Constituents of wine other than alcohol or, more likely, unmeasured determinants of wine drinking were associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer.Cancer Causes and Control 03/2007; 18(1):91-103. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The relationship between various indicators of physical activity and endometrial cancer risk was analysed using data of a case-control study conducted in 1988-1991 in Switzerland and Italy on 274 histologically confirmed cases and 572 controls admitted to hospital for acute, non neoplastic, non hormone-related diseases. Using a self-rated assessment of total physical activity, there was a systematic tendency for the cases to report more frequently 'low' or 'very low' physical activity. The relative risks were similar for 'very high' or 'moderately high' physical activity, but increased in the two lowest levels, with point estimates, in various decades of age, between 1.3 and 2.3 for 'moderately low' and over 2.5 for 'very low' physical activity. Although the association was apparently stronger at older ages, all the trends in risk were significant. Allowance for major identified potential distorting factors, including body mass index and a measure of total energy intake, could explain only in part the association, and the inverse trends in risk remained statistically significant. When selected types of physical activity were analysed, no association was observed with climbing stairs or walking, but the risk estimates for the lowest level of activity was over 4 for housework, and between 1.5 and 1.9 for sport and leisure and occupational activity. Thus, the present findings suggest that a moderate or high physical activity is an indicator of reduced endometrial cancer risk, although this observation still requires epidemiologic confirmation and clearer definition from a pathogenic point of view.British Journal of Cancer 05/1993; 67(4):846-51. · 5.04 Impact Factor