Folate, B12, and life course of depressive illness.
ABSTRACT Forty-four consecutive, unmedicated outpatients with a major depressive disorder were evaluated to determine the relationships in life course, severity of depressive illness, and serum folate and B12 levels. Duration of current episode was significantly inversely correlated with folate levels. Age at onset of illness was significantly correlated with B12. In a subgroup of recurrent depressives, current age and age at onset of depressive illness were positively correlated with folate. The findings are discussed in light of the current hypotheses regarding the association of folate and mood.
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ABSTRACT: Serum cholesterol, both total and lipoprotein fractions, has been associated with mid- and late-life depression. Using longitudinal data on a large and ethnically diverse sample of urban adults, the associations of serum lipid profile measured by high or low total cholesterol (TC; >200 mg dl(-1); <160 mg dl(-1)) and by atherogenic indices, namely high total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol relative to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, with change in total and domain-specific depressive symptoms over time were examined. Findings were compared by sex. (Hypothesis 1) In addition, baseline depressive symptoms as predictors for longitudinal change in lipid profile trajectory were tested. (Hypothesis 2) Mixed-effects regression analyses stratified by sex was used. Sample sizes of participants (n) and repeated observations (n') were: Hypothesis 1 (Men: n=826 ; n'=1319; Women: n=1099 ; n'=1817); Hypothesis 2 (Men: n=738; n'=1230; Women: n=964; n'=1678). As hypothesized, a higher level of atherogenic indices was linked to faster increase in depressive symptom scores, particularly depressed affect and interpersonal problems, though this relationship was found only among women. Among men a U-shaped relationship between baseline TC and longitudinal increase in somatic complaints and a direct link between low TC and longitudinal putative improvement in positive affect was found. On excluding statin users among women, low TC was associated with slower increase in depressed affect over time, whereas high TC was associated with faster increase in interpersonal problems. In summary, atherogenic indices were directly linked to faster increase in depressive symptoms among women only. More studies are needed to explain these sex-specific associations.Translational Psychiatry 03/2015; 5(3):e518. DOI:10.1038/tp.2015.4 · 4.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dietary antioxidants can inhibit reactions accompanying neurodegeneration and thus prevent cognitive impairment. We describe associations of dietary antioxidants with cognitive function in a large biracial population, while testing moderation by sex, race, and age and mediation by depressive symptoms. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 1274 adults (541 men and 733 women) aged 30 to 64 years at baseline (mean [standard deviation] = 47.5 [9.3]) in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the Lifespan Study, Baltimore city, MD. Cognitive performance in the domains of memory, language/verbal, attention, spatial, psychomotor speed, executive function, and global mental status were assessed. The 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was used to measure depressive symptoms. Dietary intake was assessed with two 24-hour recalls, estimating daily consumption of total carotenoids and vitamins A, C, and E per 1000 kcal. Among key findings, 1 standard deviation (∼2.02 mg/1000 kcal) higher vitamin E was associated with a higher score on verbal memory, immediate recall (β = +0.64 [0.19], p = .001), and better language/verbal fluency performance (β = +0.53 [0.16], p = .001), particularly among the younger age group. Women with higher vitamin E intake (β = +0.68 [0.21], p = .001) had better performance on a psychomotor speed test. The vitamin E-verbal memory association was partially mediated by depressive symptoms (proportion mediated = 13%-16%). In sum, future cohort studies and dietary interventions should focus on associations of dietary vitamin E with cognitive decline, specifically for domains of verbal memory, verbal fluency, and psychomotor speed.Psychosomatic Medicine 12/2014; 77(1). DOI:10.1097/PSY.0000000000000129 · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Learning Objectives Explain the biochemistry of the stress response, and describe how it affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Describe the biochemical relationship between stress and chronic, complex disease, and explain how biofeedback may modulate the stress response. Analyze the neuroanatomical basis for the mind-body connection.