Mortality study of cancer risk among oil refinery workers.
ABSTRACT The mortality experience of 1595 male workers employed in one of the largest Italian refineries in the period from 1949-1982 was examined. From the comparison with national and local death rates, increases in mortality owing to lung and kidney cancers, brain tumors, and leukemias emerged. No definite trends according to duration of exposure and years since first exposure were apparent. The increases regarding cancer of the lung, kidney and brain appeared to be associated with the early period of operations. Analysis by exposure category suggested an association of the increased mortality from leukemias with working in production (observed = 2; expected = 0.61). Kidney cancer mortality was elevated among maintenance workers (obs. = 2; exp. = 0.18). Small numbers prevented firmer conclusions. Workers in the moving department had a significantly increased mortality from all cancers (obs. = 22; exp. = 11.7), and lung cancer (obs. = 11; exp. = 3.6). Confounding by smoking could be excluded as sufficient explanation of the three-fold increase in lung cancer deaths. It was in moving that highest airborne levels of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons had been discovered in an independent environmental investigation.
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ABSTRACT: This study assesses the effect of occupational exposure to specific chemicals on the risk of renal cell carcinoma in Canada. Mailed questionnaires were used to obtain data on 1279 (691 male and 588 female) newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed renal cell carcinoma cases and 5370 population controls in eight Canadian provinces, between 1994 and 1997. Data were collected on socio-economic status, smoking habit, alcohol use, diet, residential and occupational histories, and years of exposure to any of 17 chemicals. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived using unconditional logistic regression. The study found an increased risk of renal cell carcinoma in males only, which was associated with occupational exposure to benzene; benzidine; coal tar, soot, pitch, creosote or asphalt; herbicides; mineral, cutting or lubricating oil; mustard gas; pesticides; and vinyl chloride. Compared with no exposure to the specific chemical, the adjusted ORs were 1.8 (95% CI = 1.2-2.6), 2.1 (1.3-3.6), 1.4 (1.1-1.8), 1.6 (1.3-2.0), 1.3 (1.1-1.7), 4.6 (1.7-12.5), 1.8 (1.4-2.3) and 2.0 (1.2-3.3), respectively; an elevated risk was also associated with exposure to cadmium salts and isopropyl oil. The risk of renal cell carcinoma increased with duration of exposure to benzene, benzidine, cadmium, herbicides and vinyl chloride. Very few females were exposed to specific chemicals in this study; further research is needed to clarify the association between occupational exposure to chemicals and renal cell carcinoma in females.Occupational Medicine 06/2002; 52(3):157-64. · 1.14 Impact Factor
Article: Size distribution and chemical composition of metalliferous stack emissions in the San Roque petroleum refinery complex, southern Spain.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We demonstrate that there is great variation in the size range and chemical composition of metalliferous particulate matter (PM) present within petrochemical complex chimney stacks. Cascade impactor PM samples from seven size ranges (17, 14, 5, 2.5, 1.3, 0.67, and 0.33 μm) were collected from inside stacks within the San Roque complex which includes the largest oil refinery in Spain. SEM analysis demonstrates the PM to be mostly carbonaceous and aluminous fly ash and abundant fine metalliferous particles. The metals with the most extreme concentrations averaged over all size ranges were Ni (up to 3295 μg m(-3)), Cr (962 μg m(-3)), V (638 μg m(-3)), Zn (225 μg m(-3)), Mo (91 μg m(-3)), La (865 μg m(-3)), and Co (94 μg m(-3)). Most metal PM are strongly concentrated into the finest fraction (<0.33 μm), although emissions from some processes, such as purified terephthallic acid (PTA) production, show coarser size ranges. The fluid catalytic cracking stack shows high concentrations of La (>200 μg m(-3) in PM(0.67-1.3)), Cr and Ni in a relatively coarse PM size range (0.7-14 μm). Our unique database, directly sampled from chimney stacks, confirms that oil refinery complexes such as San Roque are a potent source of a variety of fine, deeply inhalable metalliferous atmospheric PM emissions.Journal of hazardous materials 06/2011; 190(1-3):713-22. · 4.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Case reports suggest that solvents are associated with various connective tissue diseases (systemic sclerosis, scleroderma, undifferentiated connective tissue disease, systemic lupus erythematosis, and rheumatoid arthritis), particularly systemic sclerosis. A small number of epidemiological studies have shown statistically significant but weak associations between solvent exposure, systemic sclerosis, and undifferentiated connective tissue disease. However, the interpretation of these positive findings is tempered by a lack of replication, an inability to specify which solvents convey risk, and an absence of increasing risk with increasing exposure. Existing studies, on aggregate, do not show conclusively that solvents (either as a group of chemicals or individual chemicals) are causally associated with any connective tissue disease. Further investigations should be carried out to replicate the positive existing findings and to specify the solvents and circumstances of exposure that carry risk.Arthritis Research 02/2000; 2(1):5-15.