Do response time advantage and interference reflect the order of processing of global- and local-level information?
ABSTRACT Navon's (1977) global precedence hypothesis was based primarily on the joint occurrence of two effects: a response time (RT) advantage for identifying global targets, and interference by global distractors on responding to local targets. Although the hypothesis has been questioned on the basis of experiments in which it has been shown that a local RT advantage and local interference can occur, it is still frequently assumed that these two effects are a valid measure of the order in which local and global levels of structure are processed. In the present experiment, this assumption was examined. Subjects identified target letters that occurred randomly at the global or local level in a divided-attention task. The visual angle subtended by the stimulus pattern was varied, a manipulation known to affect the relative speed of response to local- or global-level information. Local targets were identified faster than global targets at the larger visual angles, but there was no difference in RT at the smallest visual angle. Despite this change in RT advantage, the interference effect did not change as a function of the visual angle of the stimulus pattern. Moreover, global distractors interfered with responding to local targets but local targets had no effect on responding to global targets, which is exactly the opposite of the finding one would expect if RT advantage and interference reflected order of processing. These findings are not consistent with the assumption that RT advantage and interference reflect order of processing in a simple way.
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ABSTRACT: In recent years, cognitive neuroscience has been concerned with the role of the corpus callosum and interhemispheric communication for lower-level processes and higher-order cognitive functions. There is empirical evidence that not only callosal disconnection but also subtle degradation of the corpus callosum can influence the transfer of information and integration between the hemispheres. The reviewed studies on patients with callosal degradation with and without disconnection indicate a dissociation of callosal functions: while anterior callosal regions were associated with interhemispheric inhibition in situations of semantic (Stroop) and visuospatial (hierarchical letters) competition, posterior callosal areas were associated with interhemispheric facilitation from redundant information at visuomotor and cognitive levels. Together, the reviewed research on selective cognitive functions provides evidence that the corpus callosum contributes to the integration of perception and action within a subcortico-cortical network promoting a unified experience of the way we perceive the visual world and prepare our actions.Neuropsychology Review 06/2010; 20(2):174-90. · 6.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abnormalities of attention and visual perception are well documented in schizophrenia. The global-local task is a measure of attention and perceptual organization that utilizes visual stimuli comprised of large letters (global level) made up of smaller letters (local level). Subjects identify target letters appearing at either the global or local level of the stimulus. In this study, we used a version of the global-local task specifically designed to examine lateralized hemispheric processing and attention shifting in 30 schizophrenia patients and 24 normal controls. Global-local stimuli were presented in couplets (consecutive pairs). Reaction time for the second target in a couplet was compared under conditions in which the target remained at the same level (global-global, local-local) and when the target changed levels (global-local, local-global). Level-specific priming (ie, global to global and local to local) and the local-to-global level shift were similar in both groups. Schizophrenia patients were significantly slower, however, shifting attention from the global to the local level. These results implicate an impairment in shifting attentional resources from predominantly right lateralized magnocellular/dorsal stream processing of global targets to predominantly left lateralized parvocellular/ventral stream processing of local targets. Local interference effects in global processing provide further support for impaired magnocellular processing in schizophrenia patients.Schizophrenia Bulletin 10/2009; 35(6):1108-16. · 8.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite indications in the split-brain and lesion literatures that the right hemisphere is capable of some syntactic analysis, few studies have investigated right hemisphere contributions to syntactic processing in people with intact brains. Here we used the visual half-field paradigm in healthy adults to examine each hemisphere's processing of correct and incorrect grammatical number agreement marked either lexically, e.g., antecedent/reflexive pronoun ("The grateful niece asked herself/*themselves…") or morphologically, e.g., subject/verb ("Industrial scientists develop/*develops…"). For reflexives, response times and accuracy of grammaticality decisions suggested similar processing regardless of visual field of presentation. In the subject/verb condition, we observed similar response times and accuracies for central and right visual field (RVF) presentations. For left visual field (LVF) presentation, response times were longer and accuracy rates were reduced relative to RVF presentation. An event-related brain potential (ERP) study using the same materials revealed similar ERP responses to the reflexive pronouns in the two visual fields, but very different ERP effects to the subject/verb violations. For lexically marked violations on reflexives, P600 was elicited by stimuli in both the LVF and RVF; for morphologically marked violations on verbs, P600 was elicited only by RVF stimuli. These data suggest that both hemispheres can process lexically marked pronoun agreement violations, and do so in a similar fashion. Morphologically marked subject/verb agreement errors, however, showed a distinct LH advantage.International journal of psychophysiology: official journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology 12/2013; · 3.05 Impact Factor