Angiotensin II: does it have a direct obligate role in ovulation?

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06510-8063.
Science (Impact Factor: 31.03). 09/1989; 245(4920):870-1. DOI: 10.1126/science.245.4920.871
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: There is evidence that angiotensin II, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietins, and their cognate receptors participate in retinal angiogenesis. We investigated whether angiotensin type 2-receptor blockade (AT2-RB) reduces retinal angiogenesis and alters the expression of VEGF/VEGF-R2 and angiopoietin-Tie2. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) was induced in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats by exposure to 80% oxygen from postnatal (P) days 0 to 11, followed by 7 days in room air. ROP shams were in room air from P0-18. A group of ROP rats received the AT2-RB, PD123319, by mini-osmotic pump (5 mg/kg/day) from P11-18 (angiogenesis period). Evaluation of the retinal status of the AT2 receptor indicated that this receptor, as assessed by real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, and in vitro autoradiography, was present in the retina, was more abundant than the AT1 receptor in the neonatal retina, and was increased in the ROP model. AT2-RB reduced retinal angiogenesis. VEGF and VEGF-R2 mRNA were increased in ROP and localized to blood vessels, ganglion cells, and the inner nuclear layer, and were decreased by PD123319. Angiopoietin2 and Tie2, but not angiopoietin1 mRNA were increased with ROP, and angiopoietin2 was reduced with PD123319. This study has identified a potential retinoprotective role for AT2-RB possibly mediated via interactions with VEGF- and angiopoietin-dependent pathways.
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    ABSTRACT: There is evidence that the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in ovulation in cattle. Using an in vivo model, we investigated the role of angiotensin (Ang) II in bovine ovulation by injecting Ang II receptor antagonists into ovulatory follicles. Animals (n = 102) were pre-synchronized and, when the follicles reached 12 mm, they were given the respective treatment and the cows received GnRH agonist (i.m.) to induce ovulation. The ovulation rate was significantly lower when 100 mu M saralasin (Ang II receptor antagonist) was intrafollicularly injected (14.3%) in comparison with saline solution (83.3%). Based on these results, a second experiment was carried out to determine the timing of Ang II's critical role in ovulation. Saralasin inhibited ovulation only when applied at 0 and 6 h (16.7 and 42.9% ovulation rate in the 0- and 6-h groups respectively), but not at 12 h (100%) following GnRH agonist treatment. To investigate the subtypes of Ang II receptors implicated in the LH-induced ovulation, losartan (LO; AT(1)-Ang II receptor antagonist), PD123 319 (AT(2)-Ang II receptor antagonist), LO+PD123 319, or saline were intrafollicularly injected when the cows were challenged with GnRH agonist. Ovulation was inhibited by PD123 319 and LO+PD123 319 (50.0 and 33.3% on ovulation rate respectively), but not by LO or saline solution (100% ovulation in both groups). From these results, we suggest that Ang II plays a pivotal role in the early mechanism of bovine ovulation via the AT(2) receptor subtype.
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    ABSTRACT: The tissue-bound ovarian renin-angiotensin system (OVRAS) is critically involved in ovulation in humans and rodents. Mice with disruption and overexpression of the angiotensinogen gene (Agt) have been previously generated. We investigated the influence of varying Agt gene expression on the ovulatory capacity and early embryonic development in mice. Observational study of genetically altered mice and their response to a superovulation protocol. Academic research institution. Mice with varying copy numbers of Agt (one copy: n = 48; two copies: n = 51; three copies: n = 20; four copies: n = 24). Superovulation protocol, oocyte culture. Number of oocytes harvested, early embryonic development of zygotes, evaluation of ovarian histology, serum estradiol measurements. The mean number of oocytes harvested was greatest in wild-type mice (two copies of Agt, 39.9 +/- 14) with a reduction of ovulatory capacity in mice overexpressing Agt (three copies [34.8 +/- 11.7] and four copies [31.2 +/- 12.4], P =.026). Mice with one copy of Agt showed a slight decrease of ovulatory capacity compared to wild-type mice (35.8 +/- 15.2, P =.29). Ovarian histology, serum estradiol levels, and early embryonic development were independent of the Agt genotype. Overexpression of Agt was associated with reduced ovulatory capacity, but with none of the other parameters that were evaluated. These findings support an important role of the ovarian renin-angiotensin system in the process of follicular rupture.
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