Tertiary structure of human complement component C5a in solution from nuclear magnetic resonance data.
ABSTRACT The tertiary structure for the region 1-63 of the 74 amino acid human complement protein C5a in solution was calculated from a large number of distance constraints derived from nuclear Overhauser effects with an angular distance geometry algorithm. The protein consists of four helices juxtaposed in an approximately antiparallel topology connected by peptide loops located at the surface of the molecule. The structures obtained for the helices are compatible with alpha-helical hydrogen-bonding patterns, which provides an explanation for the observed slow solvent exchange kinetics of the amide protons in these peptide regions. In contrast to the peptide region 1-63, no defined structure could be assigned to the C-terminal region 64-74, which increasingly acquires dynamic random coil characteristics as the end of the peptide chain is approached. An average root-mean-square deviation of 1.6 A was obtained for the alpha-carbons of the first 63 residues in the calculated ensemble of C5a structures, while the alpha-helices were determined with an average root-mean-square deviation of 0.8 A for the alpha-carbons. A comparison between the solution structure of C5a and the crystal structure of the functionally related C3a protein, as well as inferences for the interaction of C5a with its receptor on polymorphonuclear leukocytes, is discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Complement is an ancient part of the innate immune system that plays a pivotal role in protection against invading pathogens and helps to clear apoptotic and necrotic cells. Upon complement activation, a cascade of proteolytic events generates the complement effectors, including the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. Signalling through their cognate G-protein coupled receptors, C3aR and C5aR, leads to a wide range of biological events promoting inflammation at the site of complement activation. The function of anaphylatoxins is regulated by circulating carboxypeptidases that remove their C-terminal arginine residue, yielding C3a-desArg and C5a-desArg. Whereas human C3a and C3a-desArg adopt a canonical four-helix bundle fold, the conformation of human C5a-desArg has recently been described as a three-helix bundle. Here, the crystal structures of an antagonist version of human C5a, A8(Δ71-73), and of murine C5a and C5a-desArg are reported. Whereas A8(Δ71-73) adopts a three-helix bundle conformation similar to human C5a-desArg, the two murine proteins form a four-helix bundle. A cell-based functional assay reveals that murine C5a-desArg, in contrast to its human counterpart, exerts the same level of activition as murine C5a on its cognate receptor. The role of the different C5a conformations is discussed in relation to the differential activation of C5a receptors across species.Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography 06/2014; 70(Pt 6):1704-1717. DOI:10.1107/S139900471400844X · 7.23 Impact Factor
Biochemistry 03/1990; 29(12):2895-2905. DOI:10.1021/bi00464a002 · 3.19 Impact Factor