Cerebral glucose metabolism in childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder.
ABSTRACT The cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was studied in 18 adults with childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and in age- and sex-matched controls using positron emission tomography and fludeoxyglucose F 18. Both groups were scanned during rest, with reduced auditory and visual stimulation. The group with OCD showed an increased glucose metabolism in the left orbital frontal, right sensorimotor, and bilateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate regions as compared with controls. Ratios of regional activity to mean cortical gray matter metabolism were increased for the right prefrontal and left anterior cingulate regions in the group with OCD as a whole. Correlations between glucose metabolism and clinical assessment measures showed a significant relationship between metabolic activity and both state and trait measurements of OCD and anxiety as well as the response to clomipramine hydrochloride therapy. These results are consistent with the suggestion that OCD may result from a functional disturbance in the frontal-limbic-basal ganglia system.
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ABSTRACT: This article will explore recent studies that have identified alterations in brain regions in individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Specifically, alterations have been found in the cortical surface anatomy, the white matter, the gray matter, the cerebellum, the olfactory-processing structures, the temporal lobe, the prefrontal cortex, and the amygdala. Although some emerging data implicate these brain regions in OCD, the cortico–striatal–thalamic–cortical circuitry remains the prime focus of research. This article will also give an overview of studies that have found different symptom dimensions in individuals with OCD to have distinct neural correlates.Brain Mapping An Encyclopedic Reference, Edited by Editor-in-Chief: Arthur W. Toga, 02/2015: chapter Volume 3: Social Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Neuroscience, Clinical Brain Mapping: pages Pages 993–1000; Elsevier Inc.., ISBN: ISBN: 978-0-12-397316-0
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ABSTRACT: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent intrusive thoughts and ritualized, repetitive behaviors, or mental acts. Convergent experimental evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies supports an orbitofronto-striato-thalamo-cortical dysfunction in OCD. Moreover, an over excitability of the amygdala and over monitoring of thoughts and actions involving the anterior cingulate, frontal and parietal cortex has been proposed as aspects of pathophysiology in OCD. We chose a data driven, graph theoretical approach to investigate brain network organization in 17 unmedicated OCD patients and 19 controls using resting-state fMRI. OCD patients showed a decreased connectivity of the limbic network to several other brain networks: the basal ganglia network, the default mode network, and the executive/attention network. The connectivity within the limbic network was also found to be decreased in OCD patients compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, we found a stronger connectivity of brain regions within the executive/attention network in OCD patients. This effect was positively correlated with disease severity. The decreased connectivity of limbic regions (amygdala, hippocampus) may be related to several neurocognitive deficits observed in OCD patients involving implicit learning, emotion processing and expectation, and processing of reward and punishment. Limbic disconnection from fronto-parietal regions relevant for (re)-appraisal may explain why intrusive thoughts become and/or remain threatening to patients but not to healthy subjects. Hyperconnectivity within the executive/attention network might be related to OCD symptoms such as excessive monitoring of thoughts and behavior as a dysfunctional strategy to cope with threat and uncertainty. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Human Brain Mapping 11/2014; 35(11). DOI:10.1002/hbm.22574 · 6.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this paper I outline my model of personality, which I refer to as the Complex–System Approach to Personality (C-SAP). The C-SAP’s meta-theoretical background embodies the general principles of systems thinking and is designed to reconcile one of personality psychology cardinal concerns—personality coherence and incoherence. However, within the approach presented here one can find possible answers to the questions about definition of personality; its organization and development; a fundamental structure of personality architecture (here the System of Regulation and Integration Stimulation); explanation of personality traits (in light of their dominant function—reactive, regulative, or self-regulative—in controlling stimulation); and their usefulness in an analysis of personality coherence/incoherence, understood at this point as functional consistency/inconsistency over stimulation processing between temperament traits and other personality traits related to stimulation processing. Moreover, it is demonstrated how coherent/incoherent types of personalities are built when types of anxiety are considered as these other personality traits related to stimulation processing. Also, the methods for analyzing the functional (adaptive) significance of coherent/incoherent personality structures are shown. And finally, I present the selected results from my studies aimed at testing the functional role of personality coherence/incoherence in relation to the quality and dynamics of attentional performance.Journal of Research in Personality 10/2014; 56. DOI:10.1016/j.jrp.2014.09.003 · 2.00 Impact Factor