Cerebral glucose metabolic in childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder
ABSTRACT The cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was studied in 18 adults with childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and in age- and sex-matched controls using positron emission tomography and fludeoxyglucose F 18. Both groups were scanned during rest, with reduced auditory and visual stimulation. The group with OCD showed an increased glucose metabolism in the left orbital frontal, right sensorimotor, and bilateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate regions as compared with controls. Ratios of regional activity to mean cortical gray matter metabolism were increased for the right prefrontal and left anterior cingulate regions in the group with OCD as a whole. Correlations between glucose metabolism and clinical assessment measures showed a significant relationship between metabolic activity and both state and trait measurements of OCD and anxiety as well as the response to clomipramine hydrochloride therapy. These results are consistent with the suggestion that OCD may result from a functional disturbance in the frontal-limbic-basal ganglia system.
- SourceAvailable from: Clare S Allely
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "Numerous functional neuroimaging studies show CSTC circuit dysfunction to be a crucial pathophysiological feature of OCD (Saxena & Rauch, 2000). In individuals with OCD, hyperactivity during neutral or resting states has been observed in the key nodes in this CSTC circuitry, which include the OFC, ACC, and striatum (e.g., Nordahl et al., 1989; Swedo et al., 1989), which is heightened during the symptom provocation paradigm (e.g., Adler et al., 2000; Breiter et al., 1996). Despite recent studies identifying the importance of a variety of brain areas underlying OCD such as the amygdala (van den Heuvel et al., 2004) and the hippocampus (Kwon et al., 2003), among other areas, the predominant research focus is on the CSTC circuit (Brennan et al., 2013). "
ABSTRACT: This article will explore recent studies that have identified alterations in brain regions in individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). Specifically, alterations have been found in the cortical surface anatomy, the white matter, the gray matter, the cerebellum, the olfactory-processing structures, the temporal lobe, the prefrontal cortex, and the amygdala. Although some emerging data implicate these brain regions in OCD, the cortico–striatal–thalamic–cortical circuitry remains the prime focus of research. This article will also give an overview of studies that have found different symptom dimensions in individuals with OCD to have distinct neural correlates.Brain Mapping An Encyclopedic Reference, Edited by Editor-in-Chief: Arthur W. Toga, 02/2015: chapter Volume 3: Social Cognitive Neuroscience, Cognitive Neuroscience, Clinical Brain Mapping: pages Pages 993–1000; Elsevier Inc.., ISBN: ISBN: 978-0-12-397316-0
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "Convergent experimental evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies associated the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and basal ganglia (BG) with the pathophysiology of OCD. PET studies at rest and PET/fMRI studies during symptom provocation consistently found hypermetabolism in these brain regions [Baxter et al., 1987, 1988, 1990; Rauch et al., 1994; Simon et al., 2010; Swedo et al., 1989]. These findings suggested dysfunctional cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) pathways to be involved in this disorder which led to the formulation of a fronto-striatal model of OCD [Chamberlain et al., 2008; Menzies et al., 2008; Saxena et al., 1999; Saxena et al., 1998; Saxena and Rauch, 2000]. "
ABSTRACT: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent intrusive thoughts and ritualized, repetitive behaviors, or mental acts. Convergent experimental evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies supports an orbitofronto-striato-thalamo-cortical dysfunction in OCD. Moreover, an over excitability of the amygdala and over monitoring of thoughts and actions involving the anterior cingulate, frontal and parietal cortex has been proposed as aspects of pathophysiology in OCD. We chose a data driven, graph theoretical approach to investigate brain network organization in 17 unmedicated OCD patients and 19 controls using resting-state fMRI. OCD patients showed a decreased connectivity of the limbic network to several other brain networks: the basal ganglia network, the default mode network, and the executive/attention network. The connectivity within the limbic network was also found to be decreased in OCD patients compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, we found a stronger connectivity of brain regions within the executive/attention network in OCD patients. This effect was positively correlated with disease severity. The decreased connectivity of limbic regions (amygdala, hippocampus) may be related to several neurocognitive deficits observed in OCD patients involving implicit learning, emotion processing and expectation, and processing of reward and punishment. Limbic disconnection from fronto-parietal regions relevant for (re)-appraisal may explain why intrusive thoughts become and/or remain threatening to patients but not to healthy subjects. Hyperconnectivity within the executive/attention network might be related to OCD symptoms such as excessive monitoring of thoughts and behavior as a dysfunctional strategy to cope with threat and uncertainty. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Human Brain Mapping 11/2014; 35(11). DOI:10.1002/hbm.22574 · 6.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "Accordingly, as shown in Fig. 4, the typical patterns of stimulation processing in the Apprehension Type of anxiety are associated with (a) reduced attentional control and related impaired effectiveness of stimulation processing and avoidance of threatening stimuli (in clinical and nonclinical groups and trait anxiety); (b) reduction in autonomic reactivity; (c) impairment/inhibition of emotional processing, both on an attentional and physiological level; and (d) left-hemisphere involvement in processing stimulation (cf. Baxter et al., 1987; Borkovec, Ray, & Stober, 1998; Eysenck, 2006; Fletcher & Henson, 2001; Hoehn-Saric, MacLeod, & Zimmerli, 1989; Hofmann et al., 2005; Laguna, Ham, Hope, & Bell, 2004; Nitschke & Heller, 2002; Stober, 1998; Swedo et al., 1989; Thayer, Friedman, & Borkovec, 1996; Tucker, Antes, Stenslie, & Barnhardt, 1978; Wagner, 1999; Wu et al., 1991). It seems probable that the role of anxiety in direct modulation of stimulation processing is associated with specific patterns of stimulation processing formed by dominant controlling functions. "
ABSTRACT: In this paper I outline my model of personality, which I refer to as the Complex–System Approach to Personality (C-SAP). The C-SAP’s meta-theoretical background embodies the general principles of systems thinking and is designed to reconcile one of personality psychology cardinal concerns—personality coherence and incoherence. However, within the approach presented here one can find possible answers to the questions about definition of personality; its organization and development; a fundamental structure of personality architecture (here the System of Regulation and Integration Stimulation); explanation of personality traits (in light of their dominant function—reactive, regulative, or self-regulative—in controlling stimulation); and their usefulness in an analysis of personality coherence/incoherence, understood at this point as functional consistency/inconsistency over stimulation processing between temperament traits and other personality traits related to stimulation processing. Moreover, it is demonstrated how coherent/incoherent types of personalities are built when types of anxiety are considered as these other personality traits related to stimulation processing. Also, the methods for analyzing the functional (adaptive) significance of coherent/incoherent personality structures are shown. And finally, I present the selected results from my studies aimed at testing the functional role of personality coherence/incoherence in relation to the quality and dynamics of attentional performance.Journal of Research in Personality 10/2014; 56. DOI:10.1016/j.jrp.2014.09.003 · 2.00 Impact Factor