Cathepsin B activity was determined in alveolar macrophages and cell-free bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from Sprague-Dawley rats exposed only through the nose to fresh mainstream smoke from University of Kentucky high-tar, high-nicotine reference cigarettes, and in cells and fluid from room control and sham control animals. Increased levels of blood carboxyhemoglobin and pulmonary aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity in smoke-exposed animals indicated effective exposure of animals to cigarette smoke. Cathepsin B activity was quantitated with alpha-N-benzyloxycarbonyl-leucine-leucine-arginine-2-naphthylamide as substrate. Specific activity (nanomoles of substrate cleaved per milligram of protein per hour) in alveolar macrophages was increased by 43% at both 4- and 10-week exposure points in animals exposed twice daily to 10 puffs of cigarette smoke. These data indicate that maximal stimulation of the enzyme occurs within 4 weeks of the initiation of smoke exposure. When the activity was expressed on a per-cell basis, cathepsin B activity was also increased in the smoke-exposed group at both exposure points. Activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of smoke-exposed animals was increased by approximately 50% at 4 and 10 weeks, but the differences were not statistically significant. These findings demonstrate that cigarette smoke is a potent inducer of cathepsin B activity in alveolar macrophages of rats.
"These effects may be due to the conversion of carcinogens by the cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP1a1 and CYP1b1 to metabolites that can bind to TNF-α receptors (Nagaraj et al., 2006a). Our findings are in agreement with prior studies which showed that cathepsin expression and activity were upregulated by cigarette smoke treatment of pulmonary macrophages, dendritic cells, or alveolar macrophages (Chang et al., 1989;Gairola et al., 1989;Bracke et al., 2005). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoke, which contains several carcinogens known to initiate and promote tumorigenesis and metastasis, is the major cause of oral cancer. Lysosomal cathepsin proteases play important roles in tumor progression, invasion and metastasis. In the present work we investigated the effects of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) on cathepsin (B, D and L) expression and protease-mediated invasiveness in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. Our results show that treatment of OSCC cells (686Tu and 101A) with CSC activated cathepsins B, D and L in a dose-dependent manner. Both expression and activity of these cathepsins were up-regulated in CSC-exposed versus non-exposed cells. Although cathepsin L had the lowest basal level, it had the highest induction in exposed cells compared to cathepsins B and D. Suppression of CSC-induced cathepsin B and L activities by specific chemical inhibitors decreased the invasion process, suggesting that these proteases are involved in the invasion process. Overall, our results indicate that CSC activates cathepsin B and L proteolytic activity and enhances invasiveness in OSCC cells, a response that may play a role in CSC-mediated tumor progression and metastasis dissemination.
"These patients have tremendously expanded peripheral B-cell populations and high levels of polyclonal IgM in their sera. The surface phenotypes of the Bcells in these patients are similar to cells transformed with Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), in that they express high levels of B-cell activation markers (CD25, CD23, and CD54) (Gairola et al., 1989; Moszczynski et al., 1989). As will be noted later in this section, tobacco contains at least one B-cell mitogen, and it is possible that patients with PPL respond to this molecule. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review summarizes the current data on the effects of smoking and tobacco on the immune system and its potential impact on periodontal health. Smokers are 2.5-6 times more likely to develop periodontal disease than non-smokers, and there is evidence for a direct correlation between the number of cigarettes smoked and the risk of developing disease. Tobacco users also tend to exhibit increased severity of periodontal disease. Direct correlations between tobacco use and increased attachment loss and pocket depth and reduced bone crest height have been reported. Although the correlation between tobacco use and periodontal disease is quite strong, the role of tobacco in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease is uncertain. Recent studies indicate that one potential mechanism is that tobacco use exacerbates periodontal disease because it alters the immune response to periodontal pathogens. Indeed, smokers exhibit increased numbers of peripheral blood mononuclear phagocytes which appear to be functionally compromised. Inadequate phagocyte activity could reduce the clearance of pathogens from the oral cavity and thereby facilitate the development of periodontal disease. Tobacco-exposed B- and T-lymphocytes exhibit reduced proliferative capacities which could limit the production of protective immunoglobulins against oral pathogens. The risk factors for periodontal disease can be broadly classified as genetic, environmental, host-response factors, and host-related factors such as age. Tobacco, an environmental factor, undermines the host response and may facilitate the development and progression of periodontal disease. This review highlights the inter-relatedness of two of the risk factors associated with periodontal disease.
Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine 02/1997; 8(4):437-60. DOI:10.1177/10454411970080040501
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Indiana Geological Survey Circular 7 Fossils are abundant in Indiana’s rocks, and Hoosiers commonly seek information about these relics of ancient life from the Indiana Geological Survey. The primary purpose of this circular is to provide information on the principles of paleontology and the major kinds of fossils found in Indiana. Many of the fossils illustrated in this Circular are found in Indiana bedrock; some have been included to provide more information on the characteristics of the major groups of fossils. Another purpose is to stimulate interest in fossil collecting, a healthful pastime that may lead younger readers to a rewarding career. This account of ancient life concludes with a list of books that deal largely with fossils and earth history. Fossilized remains of primitive vertebrates are not discussed as they are rare in Hoosier rocks. Prehistoric plant life in Indiana is not considered, as Canright (1959) has recently described plants that grew in Indiana in the geologic past. Indiana Department of Conservation
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