Spatial distribution on pasture of infective larvae of the gastro-intestinal nematode parasites of sheep.
ABSTRACT The horizontal distributions of infective larvae on pasture grazed by sheep have been investigated. Using Taylor's Power Law it was found that larvae had a more aggregated distribution in September than August, the Law index of aggregation being 1.97 and 1.89 for the 2 months, respectively. However, at each time the degree of aggregation remained fairly constant for a range of spacings between points from 5 to 30 m. These results suggest that Taylor's Power Law could be used as a basis for devising an efficient pasture sampling strategy. More data are required, however, to determine the extent to which aggregation of the larvae varies with time of the year.
- Parasitology 04/1952; 42(1-2):77-84. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Waller P.J., Dobson R.J., Donald A.D. and Thomas R.J. 1981. Populations of strongyloid nematode infective stages in sheep pastures : comparison between direct pasture sampling and tracer lambs as estimators of larval abundance. International Journal for Parasitology11: 359–367. Over a 2-year period, numbers of infective larvae in samples of pasture herbage, and numbers of worms in previously worm-free “tracer” lambs allowed 4 weeks grazing, were compared as estimators of the abundance of infective larvae on pastures.Transformation of sample estimates of infective larval numbers per 100 g herbage dry matter (DM) and of worm numbers in tracer sheep, according to the expression y = log10 (x+25), was effective in stabilizing variances. Estimates of error variance for each technique did not differ significantly among the genera Haemonchus, Ostertagia or Trichostrongylus and the pooled estimate for the tracer sheep method was 4 times greater than that for pasture sampling. From these results, more tracer sheep than pasture samples would be required to achieve the same level of precision with the two techniques. Using conventional statistical methods, the effects of numbers of pasture samples or tracer sheep on the size of the difference between two means which can be detected as significant and on the width of the confidence interval about a single mean, are illustrated. These can be used as a guide in the choice of sample sizes. Error variances for Nematodirus spp. were significantly less than for the other genera by pasture sampling, and greater by the tracer sheep technique. Possible reasons for this are discussed, but it is concluded that pasture sampling is likely to be much the more precise method for estimating Nematodirus spp. infective larval availability.Changes with time in infective larval abundance, for Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus and Nematodirus spp. which were present in moderate to low numbers, followed similar trends by both techniques. However, for Ostertagia spp. larvae, which were much more abundant, peak levels were defined more sharply and occurred earlier by pasture sampling than by the tracer method. It is suggested that worm counts from tracer sheep, especially those grazing for 4 weeks rather than shorter periods, may systematically underestimate the infective larval population on pasture at high levels of abundance owing to density-dependent worm loss.International Journal for Parasitology 11/1981; 11(5):359-67. · 3.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This investigation was undertaken to determine the epidemiology of a single parasite genus, Ostertagia, in natural parasite populations in sheep raised under intensive conditions in North-East England.Over the 2 years of study, striking differences were found in the overall level of parasitism which were related to different climatic conditions, specifically rainfall. Despite the low source of infection derived from the ewes grazing on clean pasture in 1973 the overall level of parasitism in the lamb crop was high, this was attributed to the ideal climatic conditions for parasite translation during Spring and Summer. Ostertagia spp. was found to survive well over Winter and to initiate early infections in the young lambs in the following year. Despite the two sources of egg contamination, from the ewes and lambs, unusually dry conditions were experienced from March to June which resulted in much lower levels of infection in the second year of investigation.Regulation of the parasite population within the lambs was clearly demonstrated. Inhibition of Ostertagia was recorded somewhat earlier in the season than had been hitherto reported and was considered to be induced by a multiplicity of factors.International Journal for Parasitology 09/1978; 8(4):275-83. · 3.64 Impact Factor