Prompted voiding treatment of urinary incontinence in nursing home patients. A behavior management approach for nursing home staff.
ABSTRACT This study evaluated a treatment procedure in which 126 incontinent nursing home patients were checked on an hourly basis, asked if they needed toileting assistance (prompted), and socially reinforced for appropriate toileting. Urodynamic analysis (including cystometrogram), provocative stress test, and behavioral assessment revealed that the nursing home patients were severely debilitated, with 65% demonstrating bladder abnormalities, 87% incapable of independent toileting, and 25% failing to score on the Mini-Mental Status Exam (average score, 8.0). The treatment procedures were evaluated with a multiple baseline design in which subjects were randomly divided into immediate or delayed treatment groups after a baseline observation period. During treatment, the frequency of incontinence per 12 hours changed from a baseline average of 3.85 to a treatment average of 1.91. Three behavioral measures that can be easily collected by nursing staff significantly predicted continence levels during treatment (multiple R, 0.79) and change in incontinence during treatment (multiple R, 0.64). These prognostic criteria offer nursing staff a cost-effective method for selecting the most responsive patients for prompted-voiding treatment.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of oral estrogen/progestin on incontinence and related lower urinary tract conditions among female nursing home (NH) residents.DESIGN: Randomized placebo-controlled trial.SETTING: Five NHs.PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-two incontinent female residents of average age 88.MEASUREMENTS: Subjects were randomized to receive either oral estrogen (0.625 mg) combined with progesterone (2.5 mg) or placebo, daily for 6 months. Measures of incontinence severity, the clinical appearance of the vagina, vaginal and urethral cytology, and urine and vaginal cultures were made at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. In addition to active drug or placebo, all subjects received regular toileting assistance (prompted voiding) by trained research aides during 3-day data-collection periods to compensate for mobility and cognitive impairments.RESULTS: At 3 and 6 months there were no significant differences between the groups in the severity of incontinence, the prevalence of bacteriuria, or the results of vaginal cultures. Several clinical findings associated with atrophic vaginitis improved more in the active than the placebo group and vaginal pH and vaginal and urethral cytology exhibited a partial estrogenic effect.CONCLUSIONS: Our results must be interpreted with caution because of the size and the select nature of our subject sample. Up to 6 months of oral estrogen had only a partial estrogenic effect on vaginal and urethral epithelium and no clinical effects in this patient population. We believe that future studies of estrogen for urinary incontinence in frail NH residents should utilize a topical preparation and consider targeting urinary tract infection as an additional outcome measure.Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 12/2001; 49(6):803 - 807. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Review of intervention studies of associated factors with incontinence as the primary outcome in older people in care homes to identify and inform practice and future research. Incontinence is highly prevalent among care home populations. Previous reviews of descriptive and intervention studies have used urinary incontinence as the primary outcome. Systematic review and narrative summary. Electronic searches of English empirical studies undertaken using MEDLINE and CINAHL from January 1966-May 2010. All relevant empirical designs were selected from MEDLINE highly sensitive search strings from the Cochrane Incontinence Review Group, modified to exclude surgical and pharmacological studies REVIEW METHODS: The PRISMA statement was followed and established methods for systematic review to produce a narrative summary. Nine studies identified relating to associated factors with the management of incontinence in care homes. Factors included economic data, skin care, exercise studies, staff quality and prompted voiding adherence and the promotion of continence by the management of dehydration and incontinence. Managing incontinence and promoting continence in care homes is complex, requiring time and cost-efficient management procedures to contain the problem and deliver quality, achievable care. When developing and designing systems of care in care homes, it is important to also recognize the impact of associated factors. As with any healthcare intervention programme, resources are required to implement the protocols. Economic evaluation studies are limited, with further studies warranted alongside preventative studies to maintain long-term continence in these populations.Journal of Advanced Nursing 07/2013; · 1.69 Impact Factor
- Current Bladder Dysfunction Reports 12/2014; 9(4):326-335.