Prompted Voiding Treatment of Urinary Incontinence in Nursing Home Patients: A Behavior Management Approach for Nursing Home Staff

Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro 37132.
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society (Impact Factor: 4.22). 12/1989; 37(11):1051-7. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.1989.tb06919.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study evaluated a treatment procedure in which 126 incontinent nursing home patients were checked on an hourly basis, asked if they needed toileting assistance (prompted), and socially reinforced for appropriate toileting. Urodynamic analysis (including cystometrogram), provocative stress test, and behavioral assessment revealed that the nursing home patients were severely debilitated, with 65% demonstrating bladder abnormalities, 87% incapable of independent toileting, and 25% failing to score on the Mini-Mental Status Exam (average score, 8.0). The treatment procedures were evaluated with a multiple baseline design in which subjects were randomly divided into immediate or delayed treatment groups after a baseline observation period. During treatment, the frequency of incontinence per 12 hours changed from a baseline average of 3.85 to a treatment average of 1.91. Three behavioral measures that can be easily collected by nursing staff significantly predicted continence levels during treatment (multiple R, 0.79) and change in incontinence during treatment (multiple R, 0.64). These prognostic criteria offer nursing staff a cost-effective method for selecting the most responsive patients for prompted-voiding treatment.

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    ABSTRACT: To synthesize evidence from systematic reviews on the management of urinary incontinence and promotion of continence using conservative/behavioural approaches in older people in care homes to inform clinical practice, guidelines and research. Incontinence is highly prevalent in older people in care home populations. Systematic review of systematic reviews with narrative synthesis. Electronic searches of published systematic reviews in English using MEDLINE and CINAHL with no date restrictions up to September 2013. Searches supplemented by hand searching and electronic searching of Cochrane Library and PROSPERO. PRISMA statement was followed, as were established methods for systematic review of systematic reviews. Five systematic reviews of high quality were included, three specific to intervention studies and two reviewed descriptive studies. Urinary incontinence was the primary outcome in three reviews with factors associated with the management of urinary incontinence the primary outcome for the other reviews. Toileting programmes, in particular prompted voiding, with use of incontinence pads are the main conservative behavioural approach for the management of incontinence and promotion of continence in this population with evidence of effectiveness in the short term. Evidence from associated factors; exercise, mobility, comorbidities, hydration, skin care, staff perspectives, policies and older people's experiences and preference are limited. The majority of evidence of effectiveness are from studies from one country which may or may not be transferable to other care home populations. Future international studies are warranted of complex combined interventions using mixed methods to provide evidence of effectiveness, context of implementation and economic evaluation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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