Theories and models of nursing and the nursing process.
ABSTRACT In summary, nursing models can be evaluated by carefully considering how human beings are conceptualised within a model, how adequately the model guides nurses in the decision-making associated with all stages of the nursing process and how appropriate is the expected role of the nurse. Reference to the criteria for evaluating nursing theory (Fig. 1) demonstrates that not only can nursing models be regarded as the precursors of nursing theory but some evaluative criteria for nursing theory develop from ways of evaluating nursing models (Fig. 2). The essence of this paper has been to consider nursing theory and its place in the current climate of concern both about nursing's professional status and about standards of patient care. The difficulty in defining theory has been briefly explored and suggestions have been made of possible ways of evaluating nursing theory. A distinction has been drawn between nursing models and nursing theory with a rationale for considering nursing models as precursors of nursing theory especially as there are similarities in the criteria used to evaluate them both. The nursing process has been described as a systematic, problem-solving approach to care. It is neither a nursing model nor a theory but rather one way of organising nursing activities. A major dilemma has been omitted from this paper, however, which nonetheless deserves mention here. This dilemma is identified and summarised by Jacox (1974) among others. The question posed is: Can and should we develop nursing theories?' (Jacox's emphasis). The main competing arguments put forward by Jacox are on the one hand that there are no phenomena or activities peculiar to nursing around which nursing theory can develop, and on the other hand that there is a need for a specified body of knowledge to inform nursing practice. Efforts to establish a firmer body of knowledge on which to base nursing practice may help to identify the unique function of the nurse. This will only be achieved if practising nurses take a keen interest in developing rigorous approaches to the evaluation of nursing models and theories. Craig (1980) has linked theory development and its integration with nursing practice to professional survival. If nurses cannot identify phenomena and activities that are peculiar to nursing and if they are not prepared to safeguard these areas of practice, then the future of nursing looks bleak. Project 2000 (UKCC 1986) offers an opportunity for nurses to be more willing and able to critically consider nursing's unique contribution to health care.
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ABSTRACT: To determine whether the Roper, Logan and Tierney Model of nursing care affects the outcomes of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a leading chronic health problem throughout the world. Although there are numerous studies on patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, no studies have been found regarding patient care with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease investigated from the Roper, Logan and Tierney Model perspective. The study design was an experimental style. The sample consisted of 60 subjects with a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who were hospitalized in a university hospital in Erzurum, Turkey, in 2001 and randomly selected into control and experimental groups. On admission, the researcher completed a nursing diagnosis form for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for each patient, consisting of demographic characteristics and an assessment nursing diagnosis for each of the patients. Control group patients were treated by routine nursing care while the experimental group patients were treated by nursing care according to the Roper, Logan and Tierney Model. Upon discharge, nursing diagnoses were assessed again in both control and experimental groups. Results. Although there was no statistically significant decrease in most nursing diagnoses in the control group, there was a statistically significant decrease in nursing diagnoses in favour of the experimental group. This study demonstrated that there were improvements in patient's outcomes in the concept of holistic and individualized nursing care of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease according to the Roper, Logan and Tierney model. The findings of this study have practical importance for nursing practise. Using the Roper, Logan and Tierney Model in care of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may serve as a guide for nurses working with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients to participate patient and her/his family to patient care and to facilitate the effectiveness of patient care.Journal of Clinical Nursing 08/2007; 16(7B):223-33. · 1.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine whether the Roper, Logan & Tierney model was an appropriate model for planning nursing care for clients who are mentally ill. Data were collected from two sources in one Health Board region in Ireland. A care plan audit was used to evaluate the extent to which the Roper, Logan & Tierney model was used to assess, plan and evaluate nursing care in nursing documentation. Qualitative interviews with nurses explored their experiences of using the model and their perceptions of the model's usefulness and appropriateness for planning care. Both data sets were complementary, the qualitative data often providing contextual information which helped put the findings into perspective. It was found that there was little evidence that the Roper, Logan and Tierney model guided care planning and that goals and nursing interventions were frequently not explicitly documented. Interviews with nurses indicated that they lacked educational preparation for using the model and found the model constraining and physically orientated. The appropriateness of the Roper, Logan and Tierney model for planning care for clients who are mentally ill is questioned. It is suggested that nurses need to be adequately prepared if they are to use a model appropriately. Consideration should be given when selecting a model as to its 'fit' with the needs of the client group and the ward team philosophy.Journal of Advanced Nursing 06/2000; 31(6):1333-41. · 1.53 Impact Factor