[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been shown that QGC isolated and purified from Rumecis folium found protective effects of gastritis and esophagitis which EXT is an ethanol extract of it. We examined acute toxicity and the general pharmacological action of QGC EXT to search for any side effects of it in rats, mice, guinea pigs, and cats. In a single dose toxicity study, QGC EXT didn't show toxicological effects in rats and mice, and the LD(50) was over 5 g/kg in both animals, and there were also no changes in weight, feed and water intake during these toxicological experimental periods. We examined the general pharmacological action on central controlled behavior responses, and peripheral organs including blood pressure, heart rate, respiration and gastrointestinal system, We found that there were no significant changes in body temperature, locomotors activity, stereotyped behaviors, sleeping time, and convulsion. In other studies, writhing reaction, normal body temperature, there did not appear to be any changes. The large intestine movement and electrical field stimulation-induced contraction was not changes by its EXT. In addition, the influences on blood pressure, heart rates, and respiration by QGC EXT were not found. These results indicate that QGC EXT may be very safe as a new drug, since its LD(50) was very high over 5 g/kg and any side effects were not found.
Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 02/2012; 16(1):49-57. · 1.00 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amentoflavone was isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of the whole plant of Selaginella tamariscina. It is a traditional herb for the therapy of chronic trachitis and exhibits some anti-tumor activity. Previously, we confirmed the antifungal effects of amentoflavone. The objective of this study was to investigate the antifungal mechanism(s) of amentoflavone, such as mitochondria-mediated apoptotic cell death. The cells that were treated with amentoflavone exhibited a series of cellular changes that were consistent with apoptosis: externalization of phosphatidylserine, DNA and nuclear fragmentation, accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hydroxyl radicals, and activation of metacaspase. In addition, diagnostic markers of apoptosis, including the reduction of mitochondrial inner-membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, were observed. These phenomena are important changes in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, the effect of thiourea as hydroxyl radical scavenger on amentoflavone-induced apoptosis was evaluated. A hydroxyl radical is a more active ROS species. Mitochondrial dysfunction was inhibited, which was indicated by decreased levels of intracellular hydroxyl radicals. Taken together, our results present the first evidence that amentoflavone induces apoptosis in C. albicans cells and is associated with the mitochondrial dysfunction. Besides, amentoflavone-induced hydroxyl radicals may play a significant role in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the protective action of glucuronopyranoside flavonoids (QGC, AGC, LGC) on gastritis in rats. QGC, AGC and omeprazole decreased the gastric volume significantly, and each ID50 was 0.75, 0.54 and 8.5 mg/kg, respectively, thus the order of potency was AGC, QGC and omeprazole. They also decreased acid output, and each ID50 was 7.81, 0.58 and 6.71 mg/kg, respectively, thus the order of potency was AGC, omeprazole and QGC. They inhibited gastritis induced by indomethacin, and it recovered significantly by increasing the GSH levels in gastritis. The gastric MPO activity in the gastritis group increased more than in the normal group. QGC, LGC, or AGC administration reduced moderately the MPO activity in a dose-dependent manner. This study demonstrated that AGC, QGC, or LGC showed potent efficacy on the gastritis, by preventing oxidative stress. These results suggest that QGC, AGC, or LGC have gastroprotective effect in rats.
Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 10/2013; 17(5):411-5. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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