Liposome mediated gene transfer.
ABSTRACT Liposomes, artificial membrane vesicles, are being intensively studied for their usefulness as delivery vehicles in vitro and in vivo. Substantial progress has been made in the development of procedures for liposome preparation, targeting and delivery of contents. The broad flexibility now available in the design of the structure and composition of liposomes, coupled to recent reports of liposome mediated gene transfer in animals, suggest that liposome technology is now poised to be utilized in the creation of custom-designed cell-type-specific gene transfer vehicles.
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ABSTRACT: Liposome-entrapped DNA has been shown to enhance the potency of DNA vaccines, possibly by facilitating uptake of the plasmid by antigen-presenting cells (APC). In this paper, we have investigated the influence of the liposomal composition and surface charge on such potency. Plasmid DNA pRc/CMV HBS encoding the S (small) region of hepatitis B surface antigen was entrapped within cationic liposomes of various compositions and surface charges with high efficiency (88-97% of the amount used) by the dehydration-rehydration method that generates dehydration-rehydration vesicles (DRV). Cryo-electron microscopy revealed that DNA-containing DRV (DRV(DNA)) were multilamellar. In immunisation studies, female Balb/c mice were given two to four intramuscular injections of 10 microg naked or liposome-entrapped pRc/CMV HBS and bled at time intervals. Results indicate that the lipid composition of the DRV(DNA) influences the strength of the humoural response (immunoglobulin (Ig)G subclasses) with inclusion of dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) or phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in the liposomal structure contributing to greater responses. DRV(DNA) in which the DOPE or PE were omitted or substituted with cholesterol led to significant reduction of humoural responses against the encoded antigen. Replacing phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the DRV(DNA) with the high-melting distearoyl phosphatidylcholine also contributed to lower responses. In other experiments, IgG responses were monitored in mice immunised with pRc/CMV HBS entrapped in DRV composed of PC and DOPE as before but incorporating increasing amounts of DOTAP (1-16 micromol). Maximal IgG responses were observed at 10 weeks after the first of four injections and suggested a trend of higher responses when 4 or 8 micromol DOTAP was present in the DRV(DNA) formulation. Cell-mediated immunity (measured in terms of endogenous antigen-specific splenic interferon-gamma) in mice immunised with pRc/CMV HBS entrapped in liposomes composed of PC, DOPE and DOTAP (16:8:4 molar ratio) was much greater than in animals treated with naked plasmid. These results indicate that liposome-mediated DNA immunisation is more effective than the use of naked DNA, and also suggest that the presence of fusogenic phosphatidylethanolamine in DRV in conjunction with a low-melting phosphatidylcholine and an appropriate content of cationic lipid might contribute to more effective liposomal DNA vaccines. The notion that liposomes improve immune responses to the plasmid-encoded vaccine by facilitating the latter's uptake by APC was supported by the observation that in Balb/c mice injected intramuscularly with liposome-entrapped pCMV. Enhanced green fluorescent protein, expression of the gene in terms of fluorescence intensity in the draining lymph nodes, was much greater than in animals treated with the naked plasmid.Vaccine 05/2001; 19(23-24):3301-10. DOI:10.1016/S0264-410X(00)00432-1 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) accumulation is a prominent feature of astrocytic gliosis. The inhibition or delay in GFAP synthesis might delay scar formation resulting from an insult such as spinal cord injury or central nervous system (CNS) demyelination. The delay in the formation of a physical barrier might allow the neurons and oligodendrocytes to reestablish a functional environment. We delivered antisense GFAP RNA complexed with Lipofectin (LF), a cationic liposome, into cerebral astrocytes in culture and tested the feasibility of inhibiting GFAP synthesis. Our results demonstrate that LF facilitated antisense RNA uptake into astrocytes. Astrocytes took up 3H-antisense GFAP RNA alone and reached an equilibrium of 7-8.8 eta g per mg protein after 2.5 hr. When complexed with LF, astrocytes could increase the uptake to 14 eta g per mg protein and the time for reaching this quantity was shortened to 10 min. This uptake level was further enhanced if experiments were carried out in HEPES buffered saline (HBS). All uptake studies were dose- and time-dependent. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dBcAMP) is known to induce an increase of GFAP content in cultured astrocytes. We studied the effect of LF/antisense GFAP RNA on the GFAP content in dBcAMP (0.25 mM)-treated astrocytes. Cultures of astrocytes treated with dBcAMP contained almost twice as much GFAP as untreated cultures after 2 days. Similar cultures treated with LF/antisense RNA in HBS did not show an increase but a 30-40% decrease in GFAP content 2 days after treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)Journal of Neuroscience Research 09/1991; 30(1):72-9. DOI:10.1002/jnr.490300109 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tumor cells, such as lymphoma cells, are possible targets for gene therapy. In general, gene therapeutic approaches require efficient gene transfer to host cells and sufficient transgene expression. However, lymphoma cells previously have been demonstrated to be resistant to most of the currently available gene transfer methods. The aim of this study was to analyze various methods for transfection of lymphoma cells and to improve the efficiency of gene delivery. In accordance with previously published reports, lymphoma cells were demonstrated to be resistant to lipofection and electroporation. In contrast, we present an improved adenoviral protocol leading to highly efficient gene transfer to lymphoma cell lines derived from B cells as well as primary lymphoma cells being achieved with an adenoviral vector system encoding the beta-galactosidase protein. At a multiplicity of infection of 200, up to 100% of Daudi cells and Raji cells and 70% of OCI-Ly8-LAM53 cells could be transfected. Even at high adenoviral concentrations, no marked toxicity was observed, and the growth characteristics of the lymphoma cell lines were not impaired. The transfection rates in primary cells derived from six patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were 30-65%, respectively. Transfection efficiency could be further increased by addition of cationic liposomes to adenoviral gene transfer. Furthermore, we examined the expression of the Coxsackie-adenoviral receptor (CAR) and the integrin receptors on the lymphoma cell surface. Flow cytometric analysis showed that 88% of Daudi cells, 69% of Raji cells, and 6% of OCI-Ly8-LAM53 cells expressed CAR on the cell surface. According to our data, adenoviral infection of lymphoma cells seems to be mediated by CAR. In contrast, integrin receptors are unlikely to play a major role, because lymphoma cells were negative for alphavbeta3-integrins and negative for alphavbeta5-integrins. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that B-lymphoma cell lines and primary lymphoma cells can be efficiently transfected using an adenoviral vector system. By adding cationic liposomes, the efficiency of adenoviral gene transfer to primary tumor cells could be further improved. This protocol may have an impact on the use of lymphoma cells in cancer gene therapy.Cancer Gene Therapy 09/2000; 7(8):1145-55. DOI:10.1038/sj.cgt.7700209 · 2.55 Impact Factor