A genetic analysis of diabetic and non-diabetic Punjabi Sikhs (n = 164) was made for markers of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus using insulin receptor, insulin, and HLA-D alpha chain gene probes. Additionally British Caucasoids (n = 163) were studied using the insulin receptor probe. Insulin receptor gene restriction fragment length polymorphisms were defined using Southern blot techniques and the restriction enzyme Bgl II and BAm Hl. In Punjabi Sikhs and British Caucasoids neither of the restriction fragment length polymorphisms distinguished non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus subjects from controls. In the Sikhs no association with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was seen with the hypervariable region of the insulin gene or with HLA-DR/DQ/DX alpha chain restriction fragment length polymorphisms. We therefore conclude that despite the high prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Asians we were unable to find any genetic markers for this disease using the available cloned gene probes.
"Many of these studies looked at one or two exonic mutation in case–control association study approach, but they are too rare to account for common familial form of T2DM in Indian population, although may explain certain rare monogenic forms of T2DM. Except a few reports (Das and Maji 1999; Dixit et al. 2005; Gill et al. 1990, 1991; Hitman et al. 1987; Inamdar 2000) most of the genetic association studies are on Asian Indians of South Indian (Dravidian) origin. Considering the high genetic/ ethnic heterogeneity in this geographic region those studies are extremely inadequate. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Incidence and prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) continue to rise in Indian populations. Despite known roles for obesity, sedentary lifestyles and diet, genetic predisposition accounts for significant risk. The identification of susceptibility loci for both monogenic and typical (oligogenic) diabetes have introduced novel genes, pathways and mechanisms of diabetes pathogenesis. Very little data is available on T2DM susceptibility loci in Asian Indian population. An extensive consortium based approach is required to identify the susceptibility locus and genes responsible for common form of familial diabetes in India. By defining the genetic susceptibility loci, such studies will eventually facilitate a direct, systematic exploration of the interactions of environmental factors, obesity, insulin resistance, and genetic predisposition in the pathogenesis of T2DM and prediabetic traits and also will open new pathways of exploration and therapy. This article is a systematic review of genetic epidemiology of adult onset Type 2 Diabetes in Asian Indian Population and related research initiatives in India and abroad.
International Journal of Human Genetics 01/2006; 6(1):1-13. · 0.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes (previously known as tropical pancreatic diabetes) is a rare cause of diabetes confined to countries within the tropical belt. The aetiology of fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes is thought to be environmental although the agent(s) is unknown. We have investigated a possible genetic basis of this disease by looking for restriction fragment length polymorphisms of genes implicated in the aetiology of diabetes mellitus. Seventy-six Dravidian patients with fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes were studied, and the restriction fragment length polymorphisms obtained compared to racially matched control subjects (n = 94), patients with Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes (n = 87) and Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes (n = 58). No association of fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes was found with restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the insulin receptor gene. Although no association of fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes was found with polymorphism of the HLA DR alpha/DQ alpha/DX alpha genes, an association was found with the Taq 1 restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the DQ beta gene (DQ beta T2/T6 present in 39% of patients with fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes compared to 19% in control subjects; p = 0.01; corrected p value = 0.04) which is similar to that found in Type 1 but not Type 2 diabetes. An association of fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes was also found with the hypervariable region in the 5-prime flanking region of the insulin gene; 40% of patients possessed the class 3 allele compared to 9.5% of control subjects p = 0.0001; corrected p value = 0.0008).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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