Music absorption and hypnotizability.
ABSTRACT The present study investigated differences between high (N = 15), medium (N = 20), and low (N = 16) hypnotizable Ss' involvement in imaginative versus nonimaginative music. Ss were first screened for hypnotizability with the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (Shor & E. Orne, 1962). In a second session presented as a study of music appreciation, Ss listened to classical music of high and low rated music imaginativeness. Ss' involvement was indexed by absorption, imagery elaboration reported in open-ended essays, and reaction time to a pure tone. High hypnotizable Ss reported more absorption than low hypnotizable Ss, regardless of the imaginativeness level of the music. Ss reported more imagery elaboration in the imaginative than in the low imaginative passages. High hypnotizable Ss tended to differ in their imagery elaboration in response to the imaginative passages but not in response to the nonimaginative passages. Reaction time results were nonsignificant. No sex differences were found. Medium hypnotizable Ss were indistinguishable from both high and low hypnotizable Ss. The findings are generally compatible with J. R. Hilgard's (1970, 1974) construct of imaginative involvement.
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ABSTRACT: Our research extends studies that have examined the relation between hypnotic suggestibility and experiential involvement and the role of an hypnotic induction in enhancing experiential involvement (e.g., absorption) in engaging tasks. Researchers have reported increased involvement in reading (Baum & Lynn, 1981) and music-listening (Snodgrass & Lynn, 1989) tasks during hypnosis. We predicted a similar effect for film viewing: greater experiential involvement in an emotional (The Champ) versus a non-emotional (Scenes of Toronto) film. We tested 121 participants who completed measures of absorption and trait dissociation and the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility and then viewed the two films after either an hypnotic induction or a non-hypnotic task (i.e., anagrams). Experiential involvement varied as a function of hypnotic suggestibility and film clip. Highly suggestible participants reported more state depersonalization than less suggestible participants, and depersonalization was associated with negative affect; however, we observed no significant correlation between hypnotic suggestibility and trait dissociation. Although hypnosis had no effect on memory commission or omission errors, contrary to the hypothesis that hypnosis facilitates absorption in emotionally engaging tasks, the emotional film was associated with more commission and omission errors compared with the non-emotional film. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Consciousness and Cognition 01/2015; 33C:170-184. DOI:10.1016/j.concog.2014.11.013 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There are great individual differences in musical experiences. According to former observations and questionnaire studies, the capacity for being involved in music is characteristic of a person. The aims of the present study were to discover whether the phenomenological change in one's experiences induced by music shows differences depending on the intensity of musical involvement and type of music in a laboratory setting. Intensity of musical involvement was measured by the Musical Involvement Scale among 500 university students. High and low involvers were chosen for the laboratory experiments (N=125). Subjects listened to one of three musical pieces alone, in a darkened room. They reported about their experiences in a free report, in an interview, and they filled in the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory. Results were compared considering the intensity of involvement and type of music. We found significant differences between the experiences of high and low musical involver participants. Results show that in comparison to low involvers, high musical involvers experienced increased imagery, more physical experiences, movements, positive feelings and focused attention. They showed greater alterations in meaning, perception, time sense, body image, consciousness and self-awareness. Trance-like experiences occur mainly in the experiences of high involvers. There were significant pattern differences between the phenomenological experiences for the musical pieces, too. Intensity of involvement and type of music has a great effect on musical experiences. The results can assist music therapy considerations and further studies on musical experiences.
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ABSTRACT: Why do People Seek out Music that Makes Them cry? This paradox is a complex one that appears to have no single answer. Rather, numerous factors appear to be interacting in the diverse responses of individuals to music. The present study tested the hypothesis that individual differences in dissociation, absorption, fantasy proneness, empathy, and rumination would be related to the enjoyment of negative emotion in music. Fifty-nine participants completed a survey pertaining to this question. Results revealed statistically significant positive relationships between enjoyment of evoked negative emotion in response to music with both absorption and the recently reported construct of 'music empathy,' Factor analysis and a regression model confirmed these results, and the approach suggests that further study of individual differences will continue to provide new insights into some of the subtleties of the enjoyment of negative emotions in music.Music Perception 02/2011; 28(3):279-296. DOI:10.1525/mp.2011.28.3.279 · 1.63 Impact Factor