Validation of the reasons for living inventory in general and delinquent adolescent samples.
ABSTRACT Two studies are reported that discuss the validation of an adult suicide prediction questionnaire for use with adolescents. The Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL; Linehan, Goodstein, Nielsen, & Chiles, 1983) was slightly modified and administered to two samples of adolescents: one from a general high school population and one from a population of juvenile delinquents receiving psychological treatment in a correctional facility. As with adults, adolescents who reported more reasons for staying alive were less apt to report past or recent suicidal thoughts or behaviors. Evidence of convergent validity emerged via correlations of RFL subscales with depression, hopelessness, and other suicide inventories. Evidence of discriminant validity emerged in that correlations with social desirability were not large. Evidence of construct validity emerged in that the RFL subscales related to suicidal thoughts and behaviors over and above depression and hopelessness. Differences between general and delinquent adolescents' reasons for living are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Assessment of implicit self-associations with death relative to life, measured by a death/suicide implicit association test (d/s-IAT), has shown promise in the prediction of suicide risk. The current study examined whether the d/s-IAT reflects an individual's desire to die or a diminished desire to live and whether the predictive utility of implicit cognition is mediated by life-oriented beliefs. Four hundred eight undergraduate students (285 female; Mage = 20.36 years, SD = 4.72) participated. Participants completed the d/s-IAT and self-report measures assessing 6 indicators of suicide risk (suicide ideation frequency and intensity, depression, nonsuicidal self-harm thoughts frequency and intensity, and nonsuicidal self-harm attempts), as well as survival and coping beliefs and history of prior suicide attempts. The d/s-IAT significantly predicted 5 out of the 6 indicators of suicide risk above and beyond the strongest traditional indicator of risk, history of prior suicide attempts. However, the effect of the d/s-IAT on each of the risk indicators was mediated by individuals' survival and coping beliefs. Moreover, the distribution of d/s-IAT scores primarily reflected variability in self-associations with life. Implicit suicide-related cognition appears to reflect a gradual diminishing of the desire to live, rather than a desire to die. Contemporary theories of suicide and risk assessment protocols need to account for the dynamic relationship between both risk and life-oriented resilience factors, and intervention strategies aimed at enhancing engagement with life should be a routine part of suicide risk management. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).Psychological Assessment 03/2014; · 2.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Reasons For Living Inventory has been shown to have good psychometric properties in Western populations for the past three decades. The present study examined the psychometric properties and factor structure of English and Malay version of the Reasons For Living (RFL) Inventory in a sample of clinical outpatients in Malaysia. The RFL is designed to assess an individual's various reasons for not committing suicide. A total of 483 participants (283 with psychiatric illnesses and 200 with non-psychiatric medical illnesses) completed the RFL and other self-report instruments. Results of the EFA (exploratory factor analysis) and CFA (confirmatory factor analysis) supported the fit for the six-factor oblique model as the best-fitting model. The internal consistency of the RFL was α=.94 and it was found to be high with good concurrent, criterion and discriminative validities. Thus, the RFL is a reliable and valid instrument to measure the various reasons for not committing suicide among psychiatry and medical outpatients in Malaysia.Comprehensive psychiatry 10/2013; · 2.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the association of impulsivity, aggression and self-efficacy with protective factors against suicide. The study population consisted of 300 Italian university students (141 males, 159 females); mean age 24.2 (SD=3.01). Participants were assessed by means of the Reasons for Living Inventory, the Aggression Questionnaire, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Correlations between reasons for living and aggression and impulsivity scores were weak. However, for those individuals with high self-efficacy, aggression and impulsivity were associated with stronger reasons for living. These results support the possibility that increasing general self-efficacy could be a useful target for interventions directed toward suicide prevention in individuals with problems in emotional control.Personality and Individual Differences 12/2007; 43(8):2047-2056. · 1.86 Impact Factor