[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : To examine what contributes to resiliency in children living with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a chronic, progressive neuromuscular disorder that also influences cognitive ability. The authors hypothesized that family and social support will moderate the effects of individual symptoms of illness severity and influence positive adjustment in boys with DMD.
: One hundred forty-six boys with DMD were included. Child adjustment, as determined by parent ratings of their son's behavior using the Total Behavior score from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), was examined as an outcome measure. The contributions of individual variables (including age [which serves also as a proxy for degree of physical disability], wheelchair use, and estimated verbal IQ), family variables (the Parental Distress score from the Parent Stress Index), and social environment variables (the Social Competence score from the CBCL) on child adjustment were examined in a linear regression analysis.
: Both family and social environment variables significantly contributed to the variance in the CBCL Total Behavior score. In contrast, individual factors that are related to illness severity (age, degree of physical involvement, and estimated verbal IQ) were not associated with child adjustment.
: Increased children's social networks and decreased parents' stress levels positively contributed to good child adjustment, whereas degree of individual clinical severity did not. Thus, emphasis on providing opportunities for friendships and social support and on parents' adjustment will aid in children's resilience, ensuring they can live well, even while living with the significant burdens associated with DMD.
Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics: JDBP 11/2011; 32(9):644-50. · 2.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some individuals, despite facing recurrent, severe adversities in life such as low socioeconomic status (SES), are nonetheless able to maintain good physical health. This article explores why these individuals deviate from the expected association of low SES with poor health, and outlines a "shift-and-persist" model to explain the psychobiological mechanisms involved. This model proposes that in the midst of adversity, some children find role models who teach them to trust others, better regulate their emotions, and focus on their futures. Over a lifetime, these low SES children develop an approach to life that prioritizes shifting oneself (accepting stress for what it is and adapting the self to it) in combination with persisting (enduring life with strength by holding on to meaning and optimism). This combination of shift-and-persist strategies mitigates sympathetic-nervous-system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical responses to the barrage of stressors that low SES individuals confront. This tendency vectors individuals off the trajectory to chronic disease by forestalling pathogenic sequelae of stress reactivity, like insulin resistance, high blood pressure, and systemic inflammation. We outline evidence for the model, and argue that efforts to identify resilience-promoting processes are important in this economic climate, given limited resources for improving the financial circumstances of disadvantaged individuals.
Perspectives on Psychological Science 03/2012; 7(2):135-158. · 4.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resilience refers to psychological characteristics that promote effective coping and positive adaptation in adversity. This study investigated the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) among adolescents.
A total of 2914 Chinese adolescents living in Chengdu, Sichuan, completed the CD-RISC 1 month after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. They also self-administered the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Children's Depression Inventory, and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders. With confirmatory factor analysis, various factor structures of the CD-RISC reported in previous studies (eg, the 5- and 3-factor models) were examined at the first-order level; and a single factor of resilience was investigated at the second-order level in this sample. The internal consistency and concurrent validity were investigated. Sex and age differences were also examined.
Confirmatory factor analysis results showed that the 5-factor model originally derived among US community adults was replicated in our sample, and these 5 factors also loaded on a higher-order "resilience" factor. The Cronbach α coefficient was 0.89. The resilience scores demonstrated expected positive correlation with social support (r = 0.44) and negative correlations with depression (r = -0.38) and anxiety (r = -0.25) (Ps < .001). Male participants reported higher resilience scores than female participants, and younger participants also reported higher resilience scores than older participants.
The Chinese version of the CD-RISC was demonstrated to be a reliable and valid measurement in assessing resilience among Chinese adolescents.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.