Balloon valvuloplasty and angioplasty in congenital heart disease.

Heart 10/1985; 54(3):285-9.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Balloon dilatation valvuloplasty was performed in 16 patients with pulmonary valve stenosis aged 10 days to 17 years. Gradients were reduced in all but two patients and were less than or equal to 20 mm Hg after the procedure in all but these two and one other. Unsatisfactory initial results in these three patients were attributed to the use of too small a balloon in one patient (gradient subsequently abolished at repeat valvuloplasty), to a dysplastic valve in a neonate, and to the fact that there had been a previous surgical valvotomy with scar tissue formation in one patient. The good result was retained in six of seven patients followed up at three to six months. In one the gradient, having been reduced from 60 to 18 mm Hg, had risen to 35 mm Hg. Repeat valvuloplasty was technically impossible in this patient, but in two others residual gradients of 24 and 22 mm Hg were reduced to 4 and 8 mm Hg respectively by repeat valvuloplasty. Balloon dilatation angioplasty was successful in dilating a severe stenosis at the lower limb of an atrial baffle (previous correction of complete transposition) and in dilating supravalvar stenosis of the pulmonary artery resulting from previous banding and debanding. Thus balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty, though still a new technique, appears to be the treatment of choice in patients with typical pulmonary stenosis and thin mobile valves. Patients with dysplastic valves may be less suitable candidates for the procedure. Balloon angioplasty is likely to have other applications, including the treatment of postoperative stenotic lesions.

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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the long-term outcome of patients after percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty (BPV) treatment of congenital pulmonary valve stenosis. This study represents a case series with duration (mean +/- SD) of follow-up of 4.6 +/- 1.9 years. Forty-six patients with a median age of 4.6 years (range, 3 months to 56 years) had BPV at one academic institution between June 1981 and December 1986. Mean peak systolic pressure gradients from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery were as follows: before BPV, 70 +/- 36 mm Hg; immediately after BPV, 23 +/- 14 mm Hg; at intermediate follow-up by cardiac catheterization or Doppler echocardiography at less than 2 years after BPV, 23 +/- 16 mm Hg (n = 33); and at long-term follow-up by Doppler at more than 2 years after BPV, 20 +/- 13 mm Hg (n = 42). BPV acutely reduced the gradient to less than 36 mm Hg for 41 of 46 (89%) patients. Available gradients at long-term follow-up were less than 36 mm Hg for 36 of 42 (86%) patients without additional procedures. A patient age of less than 2 years at the initial BPV was a significant risk factor for gradients over 36 mm Hg at follow-up. BPV provides long-term relief of pulmonary valvular obstruction in the majority of patients. Close follow-up of patients who require BPV at less than 2 years of age is warranted.
    Circulation 07/1991; 83(6):1915-22. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty has been used successfully over the last few years for the relief of moderate to severe valvar pulmonic stenosis in neonates, infants, children, and adults. Both immediate and intermediate term follow-up results have been well documented by cardiac catheterization studies. Electrocardiographic and echo-Doppler evaluation at follow-up is reflective of the results and may avoid the need for recatheterization. The results of balloon valvuloplasty are either comparable to or better than those reported with surgical valvuloplasty. The causes of restenosis have been identified, and appropriate modifications in the technique, particularly the recommended use of a balloon/annulus ratio of 1.2 to 1.5, should give better results than previously documented. Complications of the procedure have been minimal. Further refinement of the catheters and technique may reduce the complication rate even further. The indications for balloon valvuloplasty have not been clearly defined but should probably be similar to those used for surgical valvotomy; only patients with moderate to severe valvar pulmonic stenosis are candidates for balloon valvuloplasty. Previous surgery and pulmonary valve dysplasia are not contraindications for balloon valvuloplasty. The procedure is also applicable to pulmonary stenosis associated with other complex cardiac defects and stenosis of bioprosthetic valves in pulmonary position. Miniaturatization of balloon/catheter systems to further reduce the complication rate and documentation of favorable result at 5- to 10-year follow-up are necessary.
    Clinical Cardiology 03/1989; 12(2):55-74. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prosthetic heart valves of the Bjork-Shiley Convexo-Concave (BSCC) type have long been used extensively in implants; however, there have been reports of cases where one component of the valves failed, leading to the demise of the patient. This paper presents a new method for noninvasive electromagnetic evaluation for this type of valve, using an eddy current transducer with orthogonal coils. In vitro experiments have shown that discontinuities of outlet strut with depths equal or larger than 0.4mm can be detected with a probability of detection (POD) of 86.4%, and in the case of discontinuities with depth equal or larger than 0.6mm with POD of 97%.


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