The human lymph node germinal center cell: characterization and isolation by using two-color flow cytometry.
ABSTRACT The germinal center of lymphoid tissues is a critical microenvironmental site of B cell activation and differentiation in response to antigenic stimuli. However, characterization of germinal center cells (GCC) in tissue sections has proved technically difficult. Therefore, we have employed two-color flow cytometric analysis of suspended human tonsillar lymphocytes in order to define more precisely the immunologic features of GCC. These cells were identified in suspension by virtue of their specific surface binding of the lectin peanut agglutinin (PNA), confirmed by tissue immunoperoxidase studies. Phycoerythrin-labeled lectin was used in combination with a variety of fluorescein-labeled antibodies in order to identify subpopulations of tonsillar lymphocytes. The majority of PNA+ cells were B cells, and both PNA+ and PNA- B cells stained for surface immunoglobulin light chains. PNA+ cells lacked surface IgD, but included cells with surface IgG and IgM. Both PNA+ and PNA- cells stained for B1, B2, BA-1, Leu-12, Leu-14, CR-I, and HLA-DR antigens, whereas CALLA was present only on PNA+ cells. There were differences between PNA+ and PNA- cells in the relative expression of B1 and B2 antigens, possibly reflecting differences in B cell activation or maturation. A small proportion of T cells were PNA+, including both helper/inducer and suppressor/cytotoxic phenotypes. PNA+ cells included both small and large lymphoid cells, and almost all DNA synthetic activity was associated with the large PNA+ cells. PNA+ B cells isolated by cell sorting had morphologic features characteristic of GCC. Therefore, PNA+ cells in suspension appeared to represent GCC, and features of these cells that cannot be convincingly shown in tissue section studies were demonstrated by flow cytometry.
- SourceAvailable from: Jonathan Braun[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Childhood is a critical period for the development of the memory B-lymphocyte repertoire necessary in protective humoral immunity. This study addressed the natural history of memory B cells based on the previous identification of germinal center and mantle zone cells as the probable precursor and mature memory cell populations, respectively. Using flow cytometric quantitation of these B-cell subpopulations in human tonsil, we found that germinal center cells were abundant (70% of tonsil B cells) during early childhood (2 to 3 years), but decline by early adolescence (8 to 14 years) to a low level (33%, P = .0003). To study the clonal evolution of these B-cell subpopulations, germinal center and mantle zone B cells were isolated using a preparative magnetic immunobead method, and analyzed using a novel polymerase chain reaction-based quantitative assay to measure the abundance of B-cell clones bearing certain rearranged VH subfamilies. Two VH subfamilies were informative: VH1N clones were uniquely deficient in germinal center B cells at the early age period, but became abundant in later childhood; and VH3L clones were absent among germinal center cells regardless of age. In contrast, B-cell clones bearing each VH subfamily were abundant in the mantle zone subpopulation throughout childhood. These findings suggest that the abundance and clonal pattern of germinal center B cells evolves during childhood, presumably due to changing antigenic or ontogenic processes. Moreover, the distinct clonal pattern of germinal center versus mantle zone B cells suggests that a major phase of clonal selection occurs after germinal center emigration.Blood 08/1990; 76(1):17-23. · 9.78 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In mammals, the binding of peanut agglutinin (PNA) on the plasma membrane defines subpopulations among lymphocytes from peripheral blood and lymphoid organs. PNA binds Galbeta 1,3GalNAc residues provided that they are not sialylated. Here, we studied the expression of PNA-binding glycans on healthy horse peripheral blood, thymus, lymph node and spleen lymphocytes. We first demonstrated the binding specificity of PNA for galactose residues by competition experiments and the inhibitory role of sialic acids in PNA binding by sialidase digestion. Unlike human and murine lymphocytes, all equine lymphocytes were found positive by flow cytometry analysis. Double-staining analyses showed that lymphocytes expressing high levels of PNA-binding glycans (PNA(high) lymphocytes) were made up of the great majority of CD5(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells, and of 30 and 50% of sIg-bearing lymphocytes in peripheral blood and in lymph nodes or spleen, respectively. Lectin histochemistry suggested that lymph node germinal centres contained PNA(high) B cells. Contrary to what is found in humans and mice, PNA staining intensity on CD5(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells did not differentiate immature from mature T lymphocytes in the equine thymus. The functional consequences of these differences are discussed.Glycoconjugate Journal 03/2005; 22(1-2):27-34. · 1.88 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Light scattering properties and antigen distribution of lymphocytes labeled with the monoclonal antibodies CD 5 and CD 20 were determined for 19 patients with a chronic B-cell derived leukaemia. The density of the antigen detected by the monoclonal antibody CD 5 appeared to be considerably lower on malignant B-lymphocytes of the patients as compared with T lymphocytes. A large variation was observed in the amount of receptors for the monoclonal antibodies CD 5 and CD 20 on the malignant cells of the different patients. B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) patients were clearly distinguishable from leukaemic follicular non Hodgkin lymphoma patients (LF-NHL, formerly lymphosarcoma cell leukaemia) and from a patient with a prolymphocytoid transformation (PLT) of the B-CLL according to the amount of the antigens for CD 5 and CD 20. Within the B-CLL patient population, no relation of progression of the disease with distribution of these antigens could be observed. In one patient the extraordinary phenotype CD 20+, CD 11+, leu 8+, CD 5– of the malignant lymphocytes was observed. An experimentally simple method to differentiate between the various chronic lymphocytic leukaemias (CLL) appeared to be the determination of orthogonal light scattering properties of lymphocytes. In healthy donors one can always distinguish two populations of lymphocytes in the orthogonal light scatter histograms. Lymphocytes of B-CLL patients show one uniform population with a relatively small orthogonal light scattering signal, lymphocytes of our patients with PLT of B-CLL or with LF-NHL show one uniform population with a relatively large orthogonal light scattering signal.Annals of Hematology 04/1988; 56(5):201-208. · 2.87 Impact Factor