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Postoperative nausea and vomiting. A comparison of sufentanil, nitrous oxide, and isoflurane.

Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.37). 11/1988; 55(6):549-52. DOI: 10.3949/ccjm.55.6.549
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Inclusion of nitrous oxide in the gas mixture has been implicated in postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in numerous studies. However, these studies have not examined whether duration of exposure was a significant covariate. This distinction might affect the future place of nitrous oxide in clinical practice. PubMed listed journals reporting trials in which patients randomized to a nitrous oxide or nitrous oxide-free anesthetic for surgery were included, where the incidence of PONV within the first 24 postoperative hours and mean duration of anesthesia was reported. Meta-regression of the log risk ratio for PONV with nitrous oxide (lnRR PONVN2O) versus duration was performed. Twenty-nine studies in 27 articles met the inclusion criteria, randomizing 10,317 patients. There was a significant relationship between lnRR PONVN2O and duration (r = 0.51, P = 0.002). Risk ratio PONV increased 20% per hour of nitrous oxide after 45 min. The number needed to treat to prevent PONV by avoiding nitrous oxide was 128, 23, and 9 where duration was less than 1, 1 to 2, and over 2 h, respectively. The risk ratio for the overall effect of nitrous oxide on PONV was 1.21 (CIs, 1.04-1.40); P = 0.014. This duration-related effect may be via disturbance of methionine and folate metabolism. No clinically significant effect of nitrous oxide on the risk of PONV exists under an hour of exposure. Nitrous oxide-related PONV should not be seen as an impediment to its use in minor or ambulatory surgery.
    Anesthesiology 01/2014; 120(5). DOI:10.1097/ALN.0000000000000122 · 6.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: All obtainable investigations that have compared the incidence of vomiting in groups of patients who received nitrous oxide (N2O) and in patients who received anesthetics or analgesics without N2O were examined for a single, dichotomous variable: whether patients who received N2O experienced an absolutely higher incidence, as distinct from a statistically significantly higher incidence, of vomiting. The null hypothesis is that N2O has no effect on emesis, such that an increased incidence of vomiting should occur in about half of the studies examined. However, patients receiving N2O experienced an absolutely higher incidence of emesis in 24 of 27 investigations. The two-tailed probability that this result occurred by chance is < 0.00005. It follows that N2O increases the incidence of emesis compared to alternative anesthetics.
    Anesthesia & Analgesia 07/1996; 83(1):114-6. DOI:10.1097/00000539-199607000-00020 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Some, but not all studies have suggested intra-operative use of nitrous oxide is correlated with postoperative nausea and vomiting. We performed a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials to compare the incidence of nausea and vomiting in adults following general anaesthesia with or without nitrous oxide. We retrieved 30 studies (incorporating 33 separate trials) that investigated a 'nitrous oxide group' (total 2297 patients) vs a 'no-nitrous oxide group' (2301 patients). Omitting nitrous oxide significantly reduced postoperative nausea and vomiting (pooled relative risk 0.80, 95% CI 0.71-0.90, p = 0.0003). However, the absolute incidence of nausea and vomiting was high in both the nitrous oxide and no-nitrous oxide groups (33% vs 27%, respectively). In subgroup analysis, the maximal risk reduction was obtained in female patients (pooled relative risk 0.76, 95% CI 0.60-0.96). When nitrous oxide was used in combination with propofol, the antiemetic effect of the latter appeared to compensate the emetogenic effect of nitrous oxide (pooled relative risk 0.94, 95% CI 0.77-1.15). We conclude that avoiding nitrous oxide does reduce the risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting, especially in women, but the overall impact is modest.
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