Brush border myosin filament assembly and interaction with actin investigated with monoclonal antibodies.
ABSTRACT Monoclonal antibodies binding to epitopes in the rod portion of brush border myosin were used to study the mechanism of filament assembly and its role in myosin interaction with actin. The antibodies and their Fab fragments had specific effects on the size of the filaments assembled in vitro. Two antibodies (BM3 and BM4), directed against the tip of the myosin tail, completely inhibited myosin filament assembly. The other antibodies (BM1, BM2 and BM5), binding to other sites along the myosin rod, only partially blocked filament growth, and short filaments could be assembled. Thiophosphorylated brush border myosin filaments appeared slightly more stable to the effects of the antibodies than those composed of dephosphorylated myosin. Only one (BM3) of the antibodies which completely inhibited the assembly of new filaments was capable of disassembling preformed myosin filaments. The other antibody, BM4, partially disassembled filaments, leaving approximately 0.2-microns long 'cores', suggesting that polymerization in this myosin occurs by a biphasic mechanism, i.e. the formation of a stable nucleus of antiparallely packed molecules, followed by elongation. The antibodies BM1 and BM2 bound to myosin filaments generating a regular transverse pattern with a approximately 14-nm periodicity, and had little effect on the stability of these preformed filaments. Inhibition of filament formation and solubilization of the myosin by the antibodies appeared to be associated with inhibition of myosin interaction with actin, as measured by the actin-activated MgATPase activity. In the presence of the antibodies which completely inhibit filament assembly, we observed a decrease to approximately 20% (BM4-Fab) and to approximately 50% (BM3) of the control actin-activated myosin MgATPase activity, and this activity was kinetically different from that of the soluble myosin S1 fragment, suggesting that the rod has a profound effect on the kinetics of actomyosin interaction.
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ABSTRACT: The thick-filament-monomeric-myosin equilibrium was prepared from pure myosin at pH 8.1. The application of hydrostatic pressure to the self-assembly equilibrium resulted in a biphasic dissociation curve in which a linear decrease in turbidity (a measure of weight added to or lost from the filament) was followed by a transition to a second pressure-insensitive phase. The first phase represents the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the growth or propagation phase of filament assembly. Here is was shown that hydrostatic pressure served to shorten the filaments in concert towards the bare zone whilst maintaining the narrow length distribution seen at atmospheric pressure; the filament concentration remained constant during the experiment. A more precise definition of the delta-v for the assembly of monomer into filament was obtained than had hitherto been possible. The positioning of the bare zone at the centre of the filament seems to be one of the more obvious functions of the length-regulation mechanism. It also appears that all the basic structural elements of the native thick filament are potentially present in the pH 8.1 homopolymer; its length can be increased by physiological concentrations of MgCl2 and decreased by pressure. The monodisperse native filament could then be formed by a fine tuning of the basic length-regulation mechanism of the homopolymer by the co-polymerization of the other thick-filament proteins.Biochemical Journal 09/1981; 197(2):301-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity of myosin II from Acanthamoeba castellanii is regulated by phosphorylation of three serine residues located at the carboxyl-terminal end of each of the two 185,000-Da heavy chains; the phosphorylated molecule has full Ca2+-ATPase activity but no actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity. Under controlled conditions, chymotrypsin removes a small peptide containing all three phosphorylation sites from the ends of the myosin II heavy chains producing a molecule with heavy chains of 175,000 Da and undigested light chains. The length of the myosin II tail decreased from 89 to 76 nm. Chymotrypsin-cleaved myosin II has complete Ca2+-ATPase activity but no actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity under standard assay conditions and binds to F-actin as well as undigested myosin II in the absence, but not in the presence, of MgATP. In the presence of MgCl2, undigested myosin II forms biopolar filaments but chymotrypsin-cleaved myosin II forms only parallel (monopolar) dimers, as assessed by analytical ultra-centrifugation and rotary shadow electron microscopy. We conclude that the short segment very near the end of the myosin II tail that contains the three phosphorylatable serines is necessary for the formation of biopolar filaments and, probably as a consequence of filament formation, for the high-affinity binding of myosin II to F-actin in the presence of ATP and the actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase activity of native myosin II. This supports our previous conclusion that actin-activated Mg2+-ATPase of native myosin II is expressed only when the enzyme is in bipolar filaments with the proper conformation as determined by the state of phosphorylation of the heavy chains.Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/1985; 260(3):1967-72. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Eight monoclonal antibodies that bind to specific sites on the tail of Dictyostelium discoideum myosin were tested for their effects on polymerization and ATPase activity. Two antibodies that bind close to the myosin heads inhibited actin activation of the ATPase either partially or completely, without having an effect on polymerization. Two other antibodies bind to sites within the distal portion of the tail that has been shown, by cleavage mapping, to be important for polymerization. One of these antibodies binds close to the sites of heavy chain phosphorylation which is known to regulate both myosin polymerization and actin-activated ATPase activity. Both antibodies showed strong inhibition of polymerization accompanied by complete inhibition of the actin-activated ATPase activity. A unique effect was obtained with an antibody that binds to the end of the myosin tail. This antibody prevented the formation of bipolar filaments. It caused myosin to assemble into unipolar filaments with heads at one end and the antibody molecules at the other. Only at concentrations higher than required for its effect on polymerization did this antibody show substantial inhibition of the actin-activated ATPase. These results indicate that, using a monoclonal antibody as a blocking agent, parallel assembly of myosin can be dissected out from antiparallel association, and that essentially normal actin-activated ATPase activity could be obtained after significant reductions in filament size.The Journal of Cell Biology 11/1986; 103(4):1527-38. · 10.82 Impact Factor