Increased serotonin2 and beta-adrenergic receptor binding in the frontal cortices of suicide victims.
ABSTRACT A statistically significant 28% increase in the mean (+/- SD) number of serotonin2 receptors (127.8 +/- 13.4 vs 99.6 +/- 11.1 fmol/mg of protein) and a 73% increase in beta-adrenergic receptor binding (14.5 +/- 1.5 vs 8.4 +/- 1.5 fmol/mg) was found in the frontal cortices of violent suicide victims compared with matched controls. No significant differences were found in the number of serotonin1 binding sites (109.5 +/- 13.4 vs 99.9 +/- 8.8 fmol/mg). We have previously reported a reduced density of presynaptic tritiated imipramine binding sites on serotonergic nerve terminals in the frontal cortices of suicide victims. These data support the hypothesis that suicide completed by violent methods is associated with reduced presynaptic serotonergic activity that has generated compensatory upregulation of the postsynaptic serotonin2 receptor sites. The increase observed in beta-adrenergic binding suggests that there may also be a concomitant reduction in presynaptic noradrenergic activity associated with suicide. If antidepressant pharmacotherapies specifically downregulate cortical beta-adrenergic and/or serotonin2 receptors in depressed subjects, as has been demonstrated in animal studies, and since these effects would be in the opposite direction of the receptor changes found in suicide victims, they may account for the therapeutic action of antidepressants on suicidal behavior and depressive disorders.
- SourceAvailable from: Aki Takahashi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Serotonin (5-HT) has long been considered as a key transmitter in the neurocircuitry controlling aggression. Impaired regulation of each subtype of 5-HT receptor, 5-HT transporter, synthetic and metabolic enzymes has been linked particularly to impulsive aggression. The current summary focuses mostly on recent findings from pharmacological and genetic studies. The pharmacological treatments and genetic manipulations or polymorphisms of a specific target (e.g., 5-HT(1A) receptor) can often result in inconsistent results on aggression, due to "phasic" effects of pharmacological agents versus "trait"-like effects of genetic manipulations. Also, the local administration of a drug using the intracranial microinjection technique has shown that activation of specific subtypes of 5-HT receptors (5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B)) in mesocorticolimbic areas can reduce species-typical and other aggressive behaviors, but the same receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex or septal area promote escalated forms of aggression. Thus, there are receptor populations in specific brain regions that preferentially modulate specific types of aggression. Genetic studies have shown important gene-environment interactions; it is likely that the polymorphisms in the genes of 5-HT transporters or rate-limiting synthetic and metabolic enzymes of 5-HT (e.g., MAOA) determine the vulnerability to adverse environmental factors that escalate aggression. We also discuss the interaction between the 5-HT system and other systems. Modulation of 5-HT neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus by GABA, glutamate and CRF profoundly regulate aggressive behaviors. Also, interactions of the 5-HT system with other neuropeptides (arginine vasopressin, oxytocin, neuropeptide Y, opioid) have emerged as important neurobiological determinants of aggression. Studies of aggression in genetically modified mice identified several molecules that affect the 5-HT system directly (e.g., Tph2, 5-HT(1B), 5-HT transporter, Pet1, MAOA) or indirectly [e.g., BDNF, neuronal nitric oxide (nNOS), αCaMKII, Neuropeptide Y]. The future agenda delineates specific receptor subpopulations for GABA, glutamate and neuropeptides as they modulate the canonical aminergic neurotransmitters in brainstem, limbic and cortical regions with the ultimate outcome of attenuating or escalating aggressive behavior.02/2012; DOI:10.1007/7854_2011_191
- 03/2011; 4(1):2-13. DOI:10.1016/j.ajp.2011.01.008
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ABSTRACT: Collective evidence suggests that inhibition of neuronal 5-hydroxytryptamine type 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptors contributes to the assuagement of depression-like behaviour in rodents. The present study evaluated the antidepressant-like effect of the 5-((4-benzo [alpha] isothiazol-3-yl) piperazin-1-yl) methyl)-6-chloroindolin-2-one (BIP-1), a compound having affinity to 5-HT(2A) receptors, using a rodent behavioural test battery. Acute BIP-1 (0.25-4mg/kg) pretreatment reduced the quipazine-induced head twitches in mice and produced antidepressant-like effects in mouse forced swim and tail suspension tests. BIP-1 reversed the depressogenic-like effects of meta-chlorophenyl piperazine and augmented the antidepressant-like effects of amitryptiline and harmane. Chronic (14days) treatment with BIP-1 (1 and 2mg/kg) or amitriptyline (10mg/kg) alleviated the behavioural anomalies of olfactory bulbectomised rats in modified open field exploration, social interaction, hyperemotionality and sucrose preference paradigms. When BIP-1 treatment was combined with amitryptyline, a short duration regimen (7days) was sufficient to reverse the bulbectomy induced anomalies. This investigation revealed that 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonism is the principal mechanism behind the antidepressant-like effects of BIP-1. Finally, we propound the combination of 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonists and tricyclic antidepressants as a likely strategy to achieve an early-onset of antidepressant action.Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 10/2009; 94(3):363-73. DOI:10.1016/j.pbb.2009.09.018