Lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in Hep G2 cells.
ABSTRACT Lipid composition, lipid synthesis and lipoprotein secretion by the Hep G2 cell line have been studied with substrate and insulin supplied under different conditions. The lipid composition of Hep G2 cells was close to that of normal human liver, except for a higher content in sphingomyelin (P less than 0.005) and a lower phosphatidylcholine/sphingomyelin ratio. Most of the [14C]triacylglycerols secreted into the medium were recovered by ultracentrifugation at densities of 1.006 to 1.020 g/ml. The main apolipoproteins secreted were apo B-100 and apo A-I. Hep G2 mRNA synthesized in vitro the pro-apolipoproteins A-I and E. Triacylglycerol secretion was 7.38 +/- 1.04 micrograms/mg cell protein per 20 h with 5.5 mM glucose in the medium and increased linearly with glucose concentration. Oleic acid (1 mM) increased the incorporation of [3H]glycerol into the medium and cell triacylglycerols by 251 and 899%, with a concomitant increment in cell triacylglycerols and cholesterol ester. Insulin (1 mU or 7 pmol/ml) inhibited triacylglycerol secretion and [35S]methionine incorporation into secreted protein by 47 and 28%, respectively, with a corresponding increase in the cells. Preincubation of cells with 2.5-10 mM mevalonolactone decreased the incorporation of [14C]acetate into cholesterol 6.2-fold, indicating an inhibitory effect on HMG-CoA reductase. It is concluded that in spite of some differences between Hep G2 and normal human hepatocytes, this line offers an alternative and reliable model for studies on liver lipid metabolism.
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ABSTRACT: Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is a serum glycoprotein with a central role in high-density lipoprotein metabolism. We created a fusion protein in which enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was fused to the carboxyl-terminus of PLTP. Stably transfected HepG2 cells, which overexpress this fusion protein, were generated. PLTP-EGFP was translocated into the ER and fluoresced within the biosynthetic pathway, showing a marked concentration in the Golgi complex. The transfected cells secreted into the growth medium phospholipid transfer activity 7-fold higher than that of the mock-transfected controls. The medium of the PLTP-EGFP - expressing cells displayed EGFP fluorescence, demonstrating that both the PLTP and the EGFP moieties had attained a biologically active conformation. However, the specific activity of PLTP-EGFP in the medium was markedly reduced as compared with that of endogenous PLTP. This suggests that the EGFP attached to the carboxyl-terminal tail of PLTP interferes with the interaction of PLTP with its substrates or with the lipid transfer process itself. Fluorescently tagged PLTP is a useful tool for elucidating the intracellular functions of PLTP and the interaction of exogenously added PLTP with cells, and will provide a means of monitoring the distribution of exogenously added PLTP between serum lipoprotein subspecies.Biochemistry and Cell Biology 05/2006; 84(2):117-25. DOI:10.1139/o05-168 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have investigated the effect of fatty acids on the rate of apolipoprotein B (apo B) secretion by human hepatoma cells (Hep G2). When Hep G2 cells were maintained in tissue culture flasks oleic acid up to 0.4 mM increased apo B secretion in a dose-dependent manner, whereas increases in triacylglycerol (TG) were smaller and dose dependency was less evident. In the absence of oleic acid, apo B accumulating in the tissue culture medium was predominantly in lipoproteins of higher density than very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). However, when the rate of secretion was stimulated with oleic acid the apo B-containing lipoproteins became lower in density. We postulated that there was a high rate of lipolysis of newly secreted VLDL by Hep G2 cells, which would account both for the relatively smaller effect of oleic acid on TG as opposed to apo B accumulating in the culture medium and the predominance of apo B in lipoproteins of a higher density than VLDL, which became less evident when VLDL secretory rates were stimulated by oleic acid. To test this hypothesis, cultured Hep G2 cells were transferred to columns containing Cytodex beads, permitting their continuous perfusion with culture medium so that newly secreted VLDL did not remain in contact with the cells. Apo B recovered from the perfusate was largely in VLDL range lipoproteins and the TG measured in the perfusate indicated that the true secretory rate of TG-rich lipoproteins was substantially higher than had been reflected by TG accumulating in culture medium left in contact with cells. Apo B measured in the culture medium of Hep G2 cells may thus be a better reflection of VLDL secretion, even though it is contained in higher density lipoproteins due to removal of TG by lipolysis. The effects of saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on apo B (apo B) secretion by Hep G2 cells maintained in tissue culture flasks were next investigated. SFA (0.4 mM), with the exception of stearic acid (C18:0), increased apo B secretion. Lauric acid (C12:0) increased apo B secretion by 32%, myristic acid (C14:0) by 41% (P<0.005), palmitic acid (C16:0) by 154% (P<0.025), and arachidic acid (C20:0) by 186% (P<0.005). The effect of MUFA (0.4 mM) was to increase apo B secretion, oleic acid (C18:1) by 239% ((P<0.0005) and palmitoleic acid (C16: 1) by 125% (P<0.005). Of the PUFA investigated, linolenic acid (C18:3) (0.4 mM) did not have any significant effect on apo B secretion, whereas linoleic acid (C18:2) (0.4mM) arachidonic acid (C20:4) (0.1 mM) and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) (0.1 mM) caused significant increases of 164, 171 and 171%, respectively (P<0.005). The fatty acids studied increased intracellular TG and cholesteryl ester concentrations to varying extents. The increase in intracellular TG produced by the different fatty acids correlated with the rate of apo B secretion (r=0.6; P<0.05). In this human hepatoma cell line, with the exception of the saturated fatty acids, the rate of secretion of apo B-containing lipoproteins does not follow the same pattern as changes in circulating low density lipoprotein (LDL) concentrations reported with dietary manipulation in man. If our findings reflect the in vivo situation, we suggest that whilst the dietary effects of SFA on serum LDL may in part be determined by the hepatic apo B secretory rate, the effects of MUFA and PUFA must be largely mediated through a catabolic effect rather than an effect on hepatic secretion. The marked increase in apo B secretion with the more highly polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid, may also explain why they do not lower circulating LDL, despite reports of their apparently favourable effect on LDL-receptor mediated clearance.Atherosclerosis 06/2000; 150(2):255-64. DOI:10.1016/S0021-9150(99)00374-3 · 3.97 Impact Factor
- Atherosclerosis 11/1993; 103(2):298-298. DOI:10.1016/0021-9150(93)90282-Y · 3.97 Impact Factor