"These mutants contained most of the linker residues compared to the previous structure of RIα (91-244). All mutants were expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells (Novagen) and purified as described previously (Saraswat et al., 1988) with slight modification. The cells were lysed and the spin supernatant was filtered with 0.22mm filter and loaded onto a Profinia protein purification system. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PKA holoenzymes containing two catalytic (C) subunits and a regulatory (R) subunit dimer are activated cooperatively by cAMP. While cooperativity involves the two tandem cAMP binding domains in each R-subunit, additional cooperativity is associated with the tetramer. Of critical importance is the flexible linker in R that contains an inhibitor site (IS). While the IS becomes ordered in the R:C heterodimer, the overall conformation of the tetramer is mediated largely by the N-Linker that connects the D/D domain to the IS. To understand how the N-Linker contributes to assembly of tetrameric holoenzymes, we engineered a monomeric RIα that contains most of the N-Linker, RIα(73-244), and crystallized a holoenzyme complex. Part of the N-linker is now ordered by interactions with a symmetry-related dimer. This complex of two symmetry-related dimers forms a tetramer that reveals novel mechanisms for allosteric regulation and has many features associated with full-length holoenzyme. A model of the tetrameric holoenzyme, based on this structure, is consistent with previous small angle X-ray and neutron scattering data, and is validated with new SAXS data and with an RIα mutation localized to a novel interface unique to the tetramer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Subcellular localization directed by specific A kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) is a mechanism for compartmentalization of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Using a two-hybrid screen, a novel AKAP was isolated. Because it interacts with both the type I and type II regulatory subunits, it was defined as a dual specific AKAP or D-AKAP1. Here we report the cloning and characterization of another novel cDNA isolated from that screen. This new member of the D-AKAP family, D-AKAP2, also binds both types of regulatory subunits. A message of 5 kb pairs was detected for D-AKAP2 in all embryonic stages and in all adult tissues tested. In brain, skeletal muscle, kidney, and testis, a 10-kb mRNA was identified. In testis, several small mRNAs were observed. Therefore, D-AKAP2 represents a novel family of proteins. cDNA cloning from a mouse testis library identified the full length D-AKAP2. It is composed of 372 amino acids which includes the R binding fragment, residues 333-372, at its C-terminus. Based on coprecipitation assays, the R binding domain interacts with the N-terminal dimerization domain of RIalpha and RIIalpha. A putative RGS domain was identified near the N-terminal region of D-AKAP2. The presence of this domain raises the intriguing possibility that D-AKAP2 may interact with a Galpha protein thus providing a link between the signaling machinery at the plasma membrane and the downstream kinase.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/1997; 94(21):11184-9. DOI:10.1073/pnas.94.21.11184 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In eukaryotes the primary target for cAMP, a ubiquitous second messenger, is cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Understanding how binding and release of cAMP changes the cAMP binding domains and then triggers long-range allosteric responses is an important challenge. This conformational switching requires structure solutions of cAMP binding domains in cAMP-bound and cAMP-free states. We describe for the first time a crystal structure of the cAMP binding domains of PKA type Ialpha regulatory subunit where site A is occupied by cGMP and site B is unoccupied. The structure reveals that the carboxyl terminus of domain B serves as a hydrophobic cap, locking the cyclic nucleotide via its adenine ring into the beta-barrel. In the absence of cAMP, the "cap" is released via an extension of the C-terminal helix. This simple hinge mechanism for binding and release of cAMP also provides a mechanism for allosteric communication between sites A and B.
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