In a study to evaluate the effect of flunixin meglumine on secretory diarrhea, 11 calves were assigned to 3 groups: group 1 (n = 3) served as controls, group-2 calves (n = 4) were given 2.2 mg of flunixin meglumine/kg, IM at 7 AM and 3 PM, and group-3 calves (n = 4) were given 2.2 mg of flunixin meglumine/kg, IM at 7 AM, 11 AM, and 3 PM. All calves were given approximately 200 micrograms of heat-stable Escherichia coli enterotoxin (STa) orally at 8 AM. Mean cumulative fecal output for groups 1, 2, and 3 was 1,331.0 +/- 317.2 g, 1,544.3 +/- 154.4 g, and 785.5 +/- 276.5 g, respectively. There was a significant (P less than 0.05) reduction in mean fecal output in group-3 calves, compared with that in groups 1 and 2. Calves in group 2 tended to have a delay, but not a reduction, in their fecal output. At 12 hours, hemoconcentration was significantly (P less than 0.05) greater in group-1 calves than in group-2 or group-3 calves.
"Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy with meloxicam has proven effective in improving food intake and weight gain in diarrhoeic calves [38,39]. Flunixin meglumine showed some beneficial effect in experimental calves orally challenged with heat-stable Escherichia coli enterotoxin  and in calves with naturally acquired bloody diarrhoea, but not in calves without faecal blood . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT: Calfhood diseases have a major impact on the economic viability of cattle operations. The second of this three part review series considers the management of diarrhoeic diseases in pre-weaned calves. In neonatal calf diarrhoea, oral rehydration therapy is the single most important therapeutic measure to be carried out by the farmer and is usually successful if instigated immediately after diarrhoea has developed. Continued feeding of milk or milk replacer to diarrhoeic calves is important, to prevent malnourishment and weight loss in affected calves. Indiscriminative antibiotic treatment of uncomplicated diarrhoea is discouraged, whereas systemically ill calves can benefit from systemic antibiotic treatment for the prevention of septicaemia or concurrent diseases. Ancillary treatments and specific preventive measures are discussed. Eimeriosis has a high economic impact on the farming industries due to direct cost of treatment and calf losses, but especially due to decreased performance of clinically as well as sub-clinically affected animals. Emphasis lies on prophylactic or metaphylactic treatment, since the degree of damage to the intestinal mucosa once diarrhoea has developed, makes therapeutic intervention unrewarding.
"A crucial step in the pathogenesis of ETEC is the binding of the secreted STa to its putative receptor on the apical surface of the intestinal epithelium (Dean & Isaacson, 1985; Roussel et al., 1988; Jaso-Friedmann et al., 1992; Butler & Clarke, 1994; Al-Majali et al., 2000b). In this study, we investigated the distribution of STa-receptor throughout the intestinal tracts of newborn kids. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The elaboration of heat stable enterotoxin (STa) is an important step in the pathogenesis of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), which causes severe diarrhea in newborn animals. In this study, the distribution of the STa-specific receptors on enterocytes and brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) prepared from the anterior jejunum, posterior jejunum, ileum and colon of newborn kids was investigated. The density of STa-receptors on enterocytes and BBMVs was higher in the posterior jejunum than that in other segments of the kids' intestines. Additionally, the affinity of the posterior jejunum STa-receptors was higher than the affinity of receptors present on the epithelium of other intestinal segments. Our findings suggest that the posterior jejunum is a major target for STa within the intestinal tract of newborn kids.
"Upon binding its receptor, STa activates GC, which converts guanosine triphosphate to cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) [ 1525,261. Increases in intracellular cGMP inhibit the Na+/Cll cotransport system in the small intestinal villus enterocytes  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) induces severe diarrhea in newborn calves through the elaboration of heat-stable enterotoxin (STa). We investigated the distribution and characteristics of the STa-specific receptors on enterocytes and brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) prepared from anterior jejunum, posterior jejunum, ileum and colon of newborn calves. We found that density of the receptors and their affinity to STa were higher on enterocytes and BBMVs that were derived from the ileum than enterocytes and BBMVs prepared from other segments of the calf intestine. This study suggests that, in newborn calves, the ileum is the major part of the intestinal tract that is affected in the course of secretory diarrhea caused by STa-producing ETEC strains.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.