Porous surfaced endosseous dental implants: fixation by bone ingrowth

University of Toronto dental journal 02/1988; 1(2):10-5.
Source: PubMed
5 Reads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Implant stability is not only a function of strength but also depends on the fixation established with surrounding tissues [Robertson DM, Pierre L, Chahal R. Preliminary observations of bone ingrowth into porous materials. J Biomed Mater Res 1976;10:335-44]. In the past, such stability was primarily achieved using screws and bone cements. However, more recently, improved fixation can be achieved by bone tissue growing into and through a porous matrix of metal, bonding in this way the implant to the bone host. Another potentially valuable property of porous materials is their low elastic modulus. Depending on the porosity, moduli can even be tailored to match the modulus of bone closer than solid metals can, thus reducing the problems associated with stress shielding. Finally, extensive body fluid transport through the porous scaffold matrix is possible, which can trigger bone ingrowth, if substantial pore interconnectivity is established [Cameron HU, Macnab I, Pilliar RM. A porous metal system for joint replacement surgery. Int J Artif Organs 1978;1:104-9; Head WC, Bauk DJ, Emerson Jr RH. Titanium as the material of choice for cementless femoral components in total hip arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 1995;85-90]. Over the years, a variety of fabrication processes have been developed, resulting in porous implant substrates that can address unresolved clinical problems. The advantages of metals exhibiting surface or bulk porosity have led researchers to conduct systematic research aimed at clarifying the fundamental aspects of interactions between porous metals and hard tissue. This review summarises all known methods for fabricating such porous metallic scaffolds.
    Biomaterials 06/2006; 27(13):2651-70. DOI:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2005.12.002 · 8.56 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of H2O/HCl heat treatment on peri-implant bone formation in vivo. Twenty Ti-6Al-4V implants and 30 Ti-6Al-4V discs were used in this study. The implants and discs were separated into 2 groups: sandblasted and dual acid-etched group (control group) and sandblasted, dual acid-etched and H2O2/HCl heat-treated group (test group). Surface morphology, roughness, and crystal structure of the discs were analyzed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and low angle X-ray diffractometry. The implants were inserted into the femurs of 10 adult white rabbits. Animals were injected with fluorescent bone labels at 1, 5, and 7 weeks following surgery to monitor progress of bone formation. Animals were euthanized 8 weeks postsurgery, and block biopsies were prepared for histologic and histometric analysis. Microscopic evaluation showed the surfaces were quite irregular for both techniques; however, the test surface demonstrated consistently smaller surface irregularities. The differences in Sa values were significant (P = .022). No significant differences were found in the maximum peak-to-valley ratio values (P = .258). X-ray diffractometry analysis showed that titanium dioxide was found on the test surface. New bone was formed on both implant surfaces. The bone-implant contact pattern appeared to produce a broad-based direct contact. Test implants demonstrated 7.13% more bone to implant contact (P = .003) and 15.42% more bone to implant contact for 3 consecutive threads (P = .001) than control implants. Test implants demonstrated 37.04% more bone area 500 microm outside of implant threads (P = .004) and 51.97% more bone area within 3 consecutive threads (P = .001) than control implants. No significant differences were found in bone area within all implant threads between the two groups (P = .069). This study demonstrated that implants heat-treated with H2O2/HCl solution enhanced peri-implant bone formation.
    The International journal of oral & maxillofacial implants 01/2008; 23(6):1020-8. · 1.45 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A 3-year proof-of-principle study was initiated to evaluate the clinical efficacy of immediately loading titanium dental implants with surfaces enhanced with porous tantalum trabecular metal (PTTM). First-year interim results are presented. Healthy, partially edentulous patients (n = 30) were enrolled and treated per protocol (minimum insertion torque: ≥35 Ncm) with 37 implants placed in one or two premolar or molar locations in either jaw (study group). Implants were immediately provisionalized out of occlusion with single acrylic crowns. After 7 to 14 days of soft tissue healing, implants were definitively restored in occlusion with ceramometal crowns. Because most study group implants (54.1%, n = 20) had less than 1 year of clinical follow-up, this interim analysis was limited to the first 22 consecutively placed implants in 17 subjects (10 women and 7 men) who completed 1 year of clinical follow-up to date (focus group). To date, one implant failed to integrate in the study group (survival = 97.3%, n = 36/37). Focus group implants achieved 100% (n = 22/22) survival with 0.43 ± 0.41 mm of mean marginal bone loss. There were no serious complications. Early clinical findings indicated that immediate loading of PTTM implants was safe and effective under the controlled study conditions.
    Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research 07/2013; 17(S1). DOI:10.1111/cid.12127 · 3.59 Impact Factor

Similar Publications