Quantitation of forearm glucose and free fatty acid (FFA) disposal in normal subjects and type II diabetic patients: evidence against an essential role for FFA in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance.
ABSTRACT This study was designed to quantitate glucose and FFA disposal by muscle tissue in patients with type II diabetes and to investigate the relationship between FFA metabolism and insulin resistance. The forearm perfusion technique was used in six normal subjects and two groups of normal weight diabetic patients, i.e. untreated (n = 8) and insulin-treated (n = 6). The latter received 2 weeks of intensive insulin therapy before the study. Plasma insulin levels were raised acutely [950-1110 pmol/L) (130-150 microU/mL)], while the blood glucose concentration was clamped at its basal value [4.9 +/- 0.1 (+/- SE) mmol/L in the normal subjects, 5.7 +/- 0.5 in the insulin-treated diabetic patients, and 5.5 +/- 0.3 in the untreated diabetic patients] by a variable glucose infusion. During the control period, arterial FFA concentrations were similar in the three groups, and they decreased to a comparable extent (less than 0.1 mmol/L) in response to insulin infusion. During the control period, the mean forearm FFA uptake was 2.5 +/- 0.5 mumol/L.min in the normal subjects, 2.9 +/- 0.5 in the insulin-treated patients, and 2.1 +/- 0.5 in the untreated diabetic patients. During the insulin infusion, FFA uptake was profoundly suppressed to similar levels in the normal subjects (0.9 +/- 0.1 mumol/L.min), the insulin-treated diabetic patients (1.1 +/- 0.3), and the untreated diabetic patients (0.9 +/- 0.1; P less than 0.001). Forearm glucose uptake was similar in the three groups during the control period. It increased during the insulin infusion, but the response in both diabetic groups was less than that in the normal subjects. The total amounts of glucose taken up by the forearm during the study period were 5.2 +/- 0.7, 2.6 +/- 0.5, and 2.1 +/- 0.6 mmol/L.min in the normal subjects, the insulin-treated diabetic patients, and the untreated diabetic patients, respectively (P less than 0.01). We conclude that 1) insulin-mediated glucose uptake by forearm skeletal muscle is markedly impaired in type II diabetes and improves only marginally after 2 weeks of intensive insulin therapy; 2) in contrast, no appreciable abnormality in forearm FFA metabolism is demonstrable in insulin-treated type II diabetic patients; and 3) FFA do not contribute to the insulin-treated skeletal muscle insulin resistance that occurs in patients with type II diabetes mellitus.
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ABSTRACT: AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes have been associated with ectopic lipid deposition. This study investigates the derangements in postprandial lipid handling in liver and skeletal muscle tissue at different stages during the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes in a rat model. METHODS: Four groups (n = 6) of male Zucker diabetic fatty rats were used for this study: prediabetic fa/fa rats and healthy fa/+ littermates at the age of 6 weeks, and diabetic fa/fa rats and healthy fa/+ littermates at the age of 12 weeks. In vivo (1)H-[(13)C] magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements were performed in liver and tibialis anterior muscle at baseline and 4, 24 and 48 h after oral administration of 1.5 g [U-(13)C]algal lipid mixture per kilogram body weight. Total and (13)C-labelled intracellular lipid contents were determined from the magnetic resonance spectra. RESULTS: In both prediabetic and diabetic rats, total lipid contents in muscle and liver were substantially higher than in healthy controls and this was accompanied by a 2.3-fold greater postprandial lipid uptake in the liver (p < 0.001). Interestingly, in prediabetic rats, skeletal muscle appeared to be protected from excess lipid uptake whereas after developing overt diabetes muscle lipid uptake was 3.4-fold higher than in controls (p < 0.05). Muscle lipid use was significantly lower in prediabetic and diabetic muscle, indicative of impairments in lipid oxidation. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: In vivo postprandial lipid handling is disturbed in both liver and skeletal muscle tissue in prediabetic and diabetic rats, but the uptake of dietary lipids in muscle is only increased after the development of overt diabetes.Diabetologia 12/2012; · 6.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In order to test the hypothesis that disturbances in skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism with type 2 diabetes are not equally present in the upper and lower limbs, we studied fatty acid kinetics simultaneously across the arm and leg of type 2 diabetic patients (n=6) and matched control subjects (n=7) for 5 h under baseline conditions and during a 4-h hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. Limb fatty acid kinetics was determined by means of continuous [U-(13)C]palmitate infusion and measurement of arteriovenous differences. The systemic palmitate rate of appearance was 3.6+/-0.4 and 2.7+/-0.3 micromol.kg lean body mass(-1).min(-1) and decreased during the clamp by 26% (p=0.04) and 43% (p<0.01) in the diabetic patients and in the control subjects respectively. At baseline, palmitate uptake across the arm was similar in the two groups, whereas leg palmitate uptake was lower than in the arm in the diabetic patients. During the clamp, palmitate uptake decreased in the arm (-48%, p=0.02) and the leg (-38%, p=0.04) of the control subjects, whereas it decreased in the arm (-30%, p=0.04) but not in the leg of the diabetic patients. Similarly, during the clamp palmitate release was substantially suppressed in the arm (-47%, p<0.01) and the leg of the control subjects (-45%, p<0.01), but only in the arm of the diabetic patients (-45%, p<0.01). The present data indicate that type 2 diabetes is characterised by heterogeneity in the dysregulation of skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism, with only the leg, but not the arm, showing an impairment of fatty acid kinetics at baseline and during a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp causing a physiological increase in insulin concentration.Diabetologia 05/2005; 48(5):938-45. · 6.49 Impact Factor
- Circulation 09/2009; 120(13):1266-86. · 15.20 Impact Factor