Epidemiology of Wuchereria bancrofti in Leogane, Haiti.
ABSTRACT A survey for Wuchereria bancrofti in Leogane, Haiti, revealed that 140 of 421 individuals (33%) had a patent infection, of which 40% lived in the suburban outskirts of the city. The median microfilaria density was 19.1 per 20 mm3 of blood for suburban dwellers compared with only 8.8 for those living in the city. The vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say), breeds mostly in and around numerous rum distilleries, located exclusively around the periphery of the city, and this undoubtedly accounts for the higher prevalence and intensity of infection among suburban dwellers.
- Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 09/1989; 83(5):679-80. DOI:10.1016/0035-9203(89)90395-7 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The distribution and epidemiology of parasitic diseases in both urban and periurban areas of endemic countries have been changing as development progresses. The following different scenarios involving Chagas disease, lymphatic filariasis, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis are discussed: (1) infected persons entering nonendemic urban areas without vectors; (2) infected persons entering nonendemic urban areas with vectors; (3) infected persons entering endemic urban areas; (4) non-infected persons entering endemic urban areas; (5) urbanization or domestication of natural zoonotic foci; and (6) vectors entering nonendemic urban areas. Cultural and social habits from the rural areas, such as type of house construction and domestic water usage, are adopted by migrants to urban areas and increase the risk of disease transmission which adversely affects employment in urban populations. As the urban health services must deal with the rise in parasitic diseases, appropriate control strategies for the urban setting must be developed and implemented.Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 02/1990; 68(6):691-8. · 5.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper reviews epidemiological data to see if there are sex differentials in prevalence, density and clinical pathology due to lymphatic filariasis. Of 53 studies from Africa, South East Asia, the Indian Subcontinent and The Americas, 43 showed a lower mean prevalence of infection in females than in males. Prevalence is consistently lower in women of reproductive age and this is statistically significant in 16 of 32 studies classified by age and sex. Density of infection is also lower in the reproductive age but may be higher in children and in older women. Clinical disease is also lower in women and pathology has a later age of onset and rise to peak prevalence than in males. The paper assesses the evidence that lower rates of infection and clinical pathology are due to less exposure of females to infective vectors. It seems unlikely that exposure alone could account for these differences which are observed for both bancroftian and brugian filariasis, irrespective of periodicity. Several investigators have suggested that females have increased resistance to infection and this is supported by serological studies showing high antibody positivity to adult worm antigens in females. The review concludes that the association with the reproductive years suggests a pregnancy-associated mechanism. This has important implications for maternal-fetal interactions and maternal filarial infection may influence the development of immunity in children.Epidemiology and Infection 11/1990; 105(2):335-53. DOI:10.1017/S0950268800047932 · 2.49 Impact Factor