A survey for Wuchereria bancrofti in Leogane, Haiti, revealed that 140 of 421 individuals (33%) had a patent infection, of which 40% lived in the suburban outskirts of the city. The median microfilaria density was 19.1 per 20 mm3 of blood for suburban dwellers compared with only 8.8 for those living in the city. The vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say), breeds mostly in and around numerous rum distilleries, located exclusively around the periphery of the city, and this undoubtedly accounts for the higher prevalence and intensity of infection among suburban dwellers.
"No infective mosquitoes were found in an LF endemic area of Papua New Guinea one year after 80% of the community started sleeping under long-lasting insecticide treated nets, despite the fact that MDA had been suspended in the area for over 5 years . The apparent inefficiency in the transmission of LF in our study area may be partly due to the different vector-parasite relationships observed in our study area where Anopheles mosquitoes are the main vectors, compared to Haiti where transmission is solely by Culex mosquitoes . The phenomenon of facilitation exhibited by Anopheles vectors is characterized by a dramatic reduction in transmission intensity following reduction in microfilariae densities. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) was established by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in 2000 with the goal of eliminating lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public health problem globally by 2020. Mass drug administration (MDA) of antifilarial drugs is the principal strategy recommended for global elimination. Kenya launched a National Programme for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis (NPELF) in Coast Region in 2002. During the same year a longitudinal research project to monitor trends of LF infection during MDA started in a highly endemic area in Malindi District. High coverage of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) in the coastal region has been associated with dramatic decline in hospital admissions due to malaria; high usage of ITNs is also expected to have an impact on LF infection, also transmitted by mosquitoes.
Four rounds of MDA with diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) and albendazole were given to 8 study villages over an 8-year period. Although annual MDA was not administered for several years the overall prevalence of microfilariae declined significantly from 20.9% in 2002 to 0.9% in 2009. Similarly, the prevalence of filarial antigenaemia declined from 34.6% in 2002 to 10.8% in 2009. All the examined children born since the start of the programme were negative for filarial antigen in 2009.
Despite the fact that the study villages missed MDA in some of the years, significant reductions in infection prevalence and intensity were observed at each survey. More importantly, there were no rebounds in infection prevalence between treatment rounds. However, because of confounding variables such as insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), it is difficult to attribute the reduction to MDA alone as ITNs can lead to a significant reduction in exposure to filariasis vectors. The results indicate that national LF elimination programmes should be encouraged to continue provision of MDA albeit constraints that may lead to missing of MDA in some years.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Entomological methods may provide important tools for monitoring the progress of lymphatic filariasis elimination programs. In this study, we compared dissection of the vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to assess filarial infection levels in mosquitoes in the context of a lymphatic filariasis elimination program in Leogane, Haiti.
Mosquitoes were collected using gravid traps located in 4 sentinel communities with Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaria prevalence that ranged from 0.8% to 15.9%. Captured mosquitoes were divided between dissection, to enumerate W. bancrofti larvae (L1, L2, L3) and desiccation for later analysis by PCR. PCR was conducted on DNA extracts from pooled mosquitoes (1–15 pooled females) utilizing a competitive PCR system with primers specific for the Ssp I repeat. PCR products were analyzed with a hybridization ELISA using probes specific for a control sequence and the Ssp I repeat.
The prevalence of mosquito infection with W. bancrofti ranged from 0%–3.66% by dissection (L1–L3) and point estimates of infection prevalence, as assayed by PCR, ranged from 0.25% – 9.16%. Following mass treatment, W. bancrofti infection prevalence dropped significantly as determined by PCR and dissection in 2 of the 4 sentinel sites (Leogane and Barrier Jeudi, P = 0.04 and P = 0.005, respectively). Although transmission declined in the other two sites, larval recoveries were low and these changes were not statistically significant.
Our results suggest that a single round of mass treatment can have an impact on transmission of lymphatic filariasis. The use of entomologic methods as a tool to monitor filariasis programs and the statistical limitations of mosquito trapping are discussed.
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