Heavy-chain binding protein recognizes aberrant polypeptides translocated in vitro.
ABSTRACT Immunoglobulin heavy-chain binding protein (BiP, GRP-78) associates tightly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with newly synthesized proteins that are incompletely assembled, have mutant structures, or are incorrectly glycosylated. The function of BiP has been suggested to be to prevent secretion of incorrectly folded or incompletely assembled protein, to promote folding or assembly of proteins, or to solubilize protein aggregates within the ER lumen. Here we examine the interaction of BiP with newly synthesized polypeptides in an in vitro protein translation-translocation system. We find that BiP forms tight complexes with nonglycosylated yeast invertase and incorrectly disulphide-bonded prolactin, but does not associate detectably with either glycosylated invertase or correctly disulphide-bonded prolactin. Moreover, BiP associates detectably only with completed chains of prolactin, not with chains undergoing synthesis. We conclude that BiP recognizes and binds with high affinity in vitro to aberrantly folded or aberrantly glycosylated polypeptides, but not to all nascent chains as they are folding.
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ABSTRACT: Mammalian cells have been successfully used for the industrial manufacture of antibodies due to their ability to synthesize antibodies correctly. Nascent polypeptides must be subjected to protein folding and assembly in the ER and the Golgi to be secreted as mature proteins. If these reactions do not proceed appropriately, unfolded or misfolded proteins are degraded by the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. The accumulation of unfolded proteins or intracellular antibody crystals accompanied by this failure triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR), which can considerably attenuate the levels of translation, folding, assembly, and secretion, resulting in reduction of antibody productivity. Accumulating studies by omics-based analysis of recombinant mammalian cells suggest that not only protein secretion processes including protein folding and assembly but also translation are likely to be the rate-limiting factors for increasing antibody production. Here, this review describes the mechanism of antibody folding and assembly and recent advantages which could improve recombinant antibody production in mammalian cells by utilizing proteins such as ER chaperones or UPR-related proteins.Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 12/2013; 98(3). · 3.81 Impact Factor
- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 02/1991; 614(1). · 4.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Animal and plant cells contain a family of constitutively expressed HSP-70 cognate proteins that are localized in different subcellular locations and are presumed to play a role in protein folding and transport. Utilizing antibodies raised against the yeast endoplasmicreticulum-localized HSP-70 cognate termed BiP/GRP-78, as well as antibodies raised against the Escherichia coli HSP-70 protein DnaK, we have identified and characterized a large family of closely related proteins in wheat. One protein band of 78 kDa that is apparently closely related to yeast BiP was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. This band cross-reacted with the yeast BiP but not with the DnaK-specific antibodies. The yeast BiP antibodies also recognized a cytoplasmic protein of 70 kDa that is probably related to the HSC-70 cognate proteins. These two proteins were further confirmed as HSP-70 cognates by their ability to bind to an ATP-agarose column. Probing of proteins from purified wheat mitochondrial preparations with the yeast BiP and DnaK-specific antibodies showed that this organelle contained a family of HSP-70-related proteins. The yeast BiP antibodies recognized two mitochondrial proteins of 60 and 58 kDa, but failed to detect any protein in the size rang of 70 to 80 kDa. However, the presence of immunologically distinct proteins of 90 and 78 kDa, as well as of lower molecular weight from this family in the mitochondria, was shown by probing with the DnaK-specific antibodies. A new protein of 30 kDa, cross-reacting with anti-yeast BiP antibodies, was detected only in developing seeds, close to their maturity. The evolution of HSP-70 cognate proteins in wheat as shown in this study is discussed.Theoretical and Applied Genetics 10/1991; 82(5):615-620. · 3.51 Impact Factor