Protein-energy malnutrition in northern Sudan: clinical studies.
ABSTRACT The medical history, clinical features and investigations of 145 children with kwashiorkor were compared with 113 marasmic kwashiorkor, 158 marasmic children and 186 nutritionally normal controls of similar age admitted to hospital in Khartoum. Factors in the group with protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) which could relate to aetiology include: a history of prolonged illness and anorexia, frequent and prolonged episodes of diarrhoea and recent measles. The delay in achievement of developmental milestones in PEM children probably reflects the frequent and chronic illnesses in this group. An episode of previous oedema was reported in 22 per cent of marasmic kwashiorkor, 12 per cent of kwashiorkor and 12 per cent of marasmic children. Though hair and mucosal changes and enlarged liver were more common in the marasmic kwashiorkor and kwashiorkor groups, they were also common in marasmic children. There was no significant difference in behaviour (apathy, irritability, anorexia) between kwashiorkor and marasmic children. The classical skin changes of kwashiorkor were only seen in the oedematous children. The mortality was 19 per cent in kwashiorkor, 35 per cent in marasmic kwashiorkor, and 14.5 per cent in the marasmic group. The major differences between marasmus and kwashiorkor children were that the kwashiorkor children were reported larger at birth, achieved more normal developmental milestones, were taller and had larger head circumference than the marasmic children. The implications of these findings in relation to aetiology are discussed.
- Geological Society London Special Publications 01/1996; 113(1):231-237. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Providing safe, nutritious, and wholesome food for poor and undernourished populations has been a major challenge for the developing world. Acute shortage, unreliable supply, and elevated costs of protein-rich foods of animal origin in the developing and underdeveloped countries have resulted in the search for inexpensive and reliable alternative sources of protein of plant origin. Some of the wild and underutilized legumes (such as Canavalia, Mucuna, and Sesbania, for example) have been investigated and found to possess rich nutraceutical value. However, the greatest impediment to utilizing these legumes is the presence of antinutrients, which could be successfully removed or deactivated by employing certain processing methods (cooking, dry heat treatments, germination, irradiation, among others). This review focuses on providing the details on some of the wild and underutilized legumes that might have high potential to be used as human food and animal feed, along with providing information for overcoming the malnutrition-associated problems and also for future commercial exploitation such as a source of nutraceuticals, for new food formulations, biofortification, and in product development.Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 09/2009; 8(4):305 - 331. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: RNA interference (RNAi) is a homology-dependent gene-silencing technology that involves double-stranded RNA directed against a target gene. This technique has emerged as powerful tool in understanding the functions of a number of genes in recent years. For the improvement in the nutritional status of the plants and reduction in the level of antinutrients, the conventional breeding methods were not completely successful in achieving the tissue-specific regulation of some genes. RNAi has shown successful results in a number of plant species for nutritional improvement, change in morphology and alteration in metabolite synthesis. This technology has been applied mostly in genetic engineering of important crop plants, and till date there are no reports of its application for the improvement of traditional/underutilized crops. In this study, we discuss current knowledge of RNAi function and concept and strategies for the improvement of traditional crops. Practical application. Although RNAi has been extensively used for the improvement of popular crops, no attention has been given for the use of this technology for the improvement of underutilized crops. This study describes the importance of use of this technology for the improvement of underutilized crops.International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 08/2012; · 1.20 Impact Factor