Protein-energy malnutrition in northern Sudan: clinical studies.
ABSTRACT The medical history, clinical features and investigations of 145 children with kwashiorkor were compared with 113 marasmic kwashiorkor, 158 marasmic children and 186 nutritionally normal controls of similar age admitted to hospital in Khartoum. Factors in the group with protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) which could relate to aetiology include: a history of prolonged illness and anorexia, frequent and prolonged episodes of diarrhoea and recent measles. The delay in achievement of developmental milestones in PEM children probably reflects the frequent and chronic illnesses in this group. An episode of previous oedema was reported in 22 per cent of marasmic kwashiorkor, 12 per cent of kwashiorkor and 12 per cent of marasmic children. Though hair and mucosal changes and enlarged liver were more common in the marasmic kwashiorkor and kwashiorkor groups, they were also common in marasmic children. There was no significant difference in behaviour (apathy, irritability, anorexia) between kwashiorkor and marasmic children. The classical skin changes of kwashiorkor were only seen in the oedematous children. The mortality was 19 per cent in kwashiorkor, 35 per cent in marasmic kwashiorkor, and 14.5 per cent in the marasmic group. The major differences between marasmus and kwashiorkor children were that the kwashiorkor children were reported larger at birth, achieved more normal developmental milestones, were taller and had larger head circumference than the marasmic children. The implications of these findings in relation to aetiology are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: ESR technique was used to detect free radicals present naturally or formed alter employing various food processing methods (irradiation, microwave roasting, pan frying and pounding) by entrapping small quantities of seed portions (seed coat and cotyledon) of Canavalia cathartica in potassium chloride powder in ESR quartz tubes. ESR signal at g=2.002 was more prominent in seed coat than the cotyledon. Application of ionising radiation (gamma and electron beam, 10 kGy) resulted in enhancement of signal at g=2.002 accompanied by a weak triplet (a(H)=3mT) in seed coat, which can be used as a suitable method of detection of irradiation. Some of the commonly employed food processing methods also generated free radicals (at g=2.002) more or less comparable to irradiation. Results of the present study might prove to be beneficial for the consumers who are interested to be acquainted with the status of lice radicals in legumes after conventional or modern food processing and preservation methods.Acta Alimentaria 10/2008; 37(4):337-345.. DOI:10.1556/AAlim.2008.0005 · 0.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Seeds of a wild legume, Canavalia cathartica collected from coastal sand dunes of the southwest coast of India were processed (roasted and cooked) and analyzed for proximate composition, mineral constituents, protein fractions, amino acid profiles, fatty acids and some antinutritional factors. Raw, roasted and cooked seeds contained 35.5%, 30.5% and 29.2% crude protein; 52.8%, 65.3% and 65.4% crude carbohydrates; 1.3%, 1.4% and 1.4% crude lipids; 1.7%, 1.6% and 1% crude fibre and 3.1%, 3% and 3.1% ash, respectively. Among the minerals, potassium was the highest (895, 821 and 190 mg/100 g), followed by phosphorus (137, 112 and 99 mg/100 g) and calcium (84, 70 and 44 mg/100 g). Among the true protein fractions of raw seeds, globulins (18.3 g/100 g) and albumins (7.3 g/100 g) were the major seed proteins. Essential amino acids, threonine, valine, methionine + cystine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine + tyrosine and lysine, were above the FAO/WHO pattern in raw seeds. In roasted and cooked seeds, essential amino acid score ranged between 54 (threonine) and 224 (methionine). Essential amino acids, leucine, phenylalanine and lysine, in raw seeds were more than those of whole egg protein, soybean and rice. Total phenolics slightly declined in cooked seeds. Seeds did not possess tannins and trypsin inhibitors. Proteins of raw seeds possessed strong hemagglutination activity, which was lowered in processed seeds. The current study demonstrated that seeds of C. cathartica were high in protein, essential amino acids and low in saturated fatty acids and anti-nutritional factors.Food Chemistry 09/2005; DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.08.011 · 3.26 Impact Factor