Recombinant interferon gamma in hairy cell leukemia, multiple myeloma, and Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia.
ABSTRACT Fifteen patients with multiple myeloma, five with hairy cell leukemia, and five with Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia were treated with recombinant interferon gamma (rINF-gamma) to determine the antitumor activity of this agent. The rIFN-gamma was administered by daily intramuscular injection at doses ranging from 0.125 to 0.5 mg/m2. No responses were observed in patients with multiple myeloma, although in one patient the disease has remained stable for over 16 months. Minimal improvement in some hematologic indexes were observed in three of five patients with hairy cell leukemia. One partial remission and one minor response were documented in two of the five patients with Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. In five patients, an increase in normal serum immunoglobulins was observed. These results suggest that there is only minimal activity of rIFN-gamma as a single agent in neoplasms of B-cell origin.
Article: Waldenström’s Macroglobulinaemia[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Waldenström’s macroglobulinaemia is a rare B-cell malignancy. It is prevalent in the sixth and seventh decades, the median age at diagnosis being 63 years. Conventional treatment has involved alkylator therapy, especially chlorambucil given daily at a low dose or intermittently at a higher dose. Purine analogues, used initially as salvage therapy in refractory disease, are increasingly used for initial therapy. However, purine analogue therapy entails significant complications, including immunosuppression, pancytopenia and autoimmune haemolysis. Moreover, it is unclear whether purine analogues extend survival. All of these need to be considered before initiation of therapy. More recently, anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody and thalidomide have been used with a 30% response in treated patients. High-dose therapy with stem cell support achieves a partial response in a majority of patients receiving this modality of therapy. The median survival of 5 years has not improved considerably since the introduction of purine analogues. Complete response is still uncommon; using all available modalities of therapy may increase the complete response rate and improve survival. Great strides in understanding the malignant cell, the microenvironment and the potential interactions have identified potential targets for therapy in multiple myeloma. These agents may also be useful in Waldenström’s macroglobulinaemia. Since this is a rare malignancy, all patients should be treated with well-designed clinical protocols to achieve improvement in outcome.BioDrugs 16(3). · 2.12 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The true potential of cytokine therapies in cancer treatment is limited by the inability to deliver optimal concentrations into tumor sites due to dose-limiting systemic toxicities. To maximize the efficacy of cytokine therapy, recombinant antibody-cytokine fusion proteins have been constructed by a number of groups to harness the tumor-targeting ability of monoclonal antibodies. The aim is to guide cytokines specifically to tumor sites where they might stimulate more optimal anti-tumor immune responses while avoiding the systemic toxicities of free cytokine therapy. Antibody-cytokine fusion proteins containing IL-2, IL-12, IL-21, TNFα, and interferons α, β, and γ have been constructed and have shown anti-tumor activity in pre-clinical and early phase clinical studies. Future priorities for development of this technology include optimization of tumor targeting, bioactivity of the fused cytokine, and choice of appropriate agents for combination therapies. This review is intended to serve as a framework for engineering an ideal antibody-cytokine fusion protein, focusing on previously developed constructs and their clinical trial results.Seminars in Oncology 08/2014; · 3.94 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune-system lymphocytes capable of killing tumor cells. They secrete cytokines, including interferon (IFN)-γ, which participate in shaping the initial inflammatory and downstream adaptive immune responses. Its potent immunoregulatory action means that IFN-γ might be beneficial in cases of tumor rejection, but its severe side-effects limit clinical applications. This pilot study compared low-dose IFN-γ prepared by sequential-kinetic-activation (SKA), with standard-dose recombinant (r) IFN-γ, in terms of ex-vivo cytotoxic activity of peripheral blood (PB)-NK cells from colorectal carcinoma (CRC) patients. This was tested against the NK-sensitive K562 cell line and the less-sensitive human CRC Caco-2 and HT-29 cell lines. Twenty primitive non-metastatic CRC patients, five metastatic CRC patients, and thirteen healthy donors were enrolled. PB lymphocytes (PBLs) were exposed to medium alone, SKA-IFN-γ (0.25fg/ml) or rIFN-γ (1ng/ml). NK cell cytolytic activity was examined via short-term (51)Cr-release. Pretreatment of PBL from non-metastatic patients with SKA-IFN-γ caused a significant increase in NK cell cytotoxicity, compared to those from normal donors, although less markedly than pretreatment with rIFN-γ against all three cell lines. In contrast, PBLs from metastatic CRC patients displayed significantly decreased NK-cell activity and responsiveness to both rIFN-γ and SKA-IFN-γ treatments. These results demonstrate in principle the immunomodulatory capacity of low-dose SKA-IFN-γ, and might open the door to the possibility of generating a novel, safe, and feasible approach to enhancing NK-cell antitumor activity in early-stage CRC patients.International immunopharmacology 12/2013; 19(1). · 2.21 Impact Factor